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SOCA01H3 (480)

Sociology Reading Notes

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Shelly Ungar

Chapter 4Chapter 4The l10 to 11 year old little boy who walked who walked out of the French woods naked unable to speak and filthy was known as the wild boy of AveyronA role is the behavior expected of a person occupying a particular position in societyThe formation of a sense of self continues in adolescence a particularly turbulent period of rapidselfdevelopmentThe crystallization of self identity during adolescence is just one episode in a lifelong process of socialization Agents of socialization Families schools peer groups and mass mediaBiology sets the broad limits of human potential Socialization determines the extent to which human potential is realizedSocialization begins soon after birthThe self consists of your ideas and attitudes about who you are Look glass self The I according to mead is the subjective and impulsive aspect of the self that is present from birthThe MEaccording the Mead is the objective component of the self that emerges as people communicate symbolically and learn to take the role of the otherThrough socialization the self developsCooleys looking glass self is composed of our reactions to how we imagine others view usFor mead the self develops through a broadening ability to emphasize with significant and generalized othersSocialization often produces important gender and cultural difference Social environment is composed of the real or imagined others to whom individuals must adapt to satisfy their own needs and interestsAdaption is the process of changing ones action to maximize the degree to which an environment satisfies ones needs and interests Socialization is an evolutionary process through which groups shape the character and conduct of individualsPrimary socialization is the process of acquiring the basic skills needed to function in society during childhood Family is the most important agent of primary socialization the process of mastering the basic skills required to function in society during childhoodThe idea of hidden curriculum was first proposed by conflict theorists who see an ongoing struggle between privileged and disadvantaged groups whenever they probe beneath the surface of social life Early in the twentieth century symbolic integrationists proposed the Thomas theorem which hold that situation we define as real become real in their consequence Peer groups are agents of socialization whose importance grew in the twentieth century Peer groups consists of individuals who are not necessarily friends but who are about the same age and of similar status Gender roles are widely shared expectations about how males and females are supposed to actSocialization take place when powerful socializing agents deliberately cause rapid change in peoples values roles and shield conception sometime against their will You can see it in ceremonies that are stage ie frats sororitys etc Initiation rite signifies the transition of the individual from one group to another and ensures his or her loyalty to the new group The Stanford prison experiment suggests that your sense of self and the roles you play are not as fixed as you may thinkTotal institutions provide comprehensive conditions for socialization The mass media often promote and reinforce stereotypical gender roles Globalization various medical advances and the pervasiveness of the internet encourage the development of more fluid flexible selves Prolonged childhood was necessary in societies that required better educated adults to do increasingly complex work because childhood gave young people a chance to prepare for adult lifeth Childhood adolescence became universal categories of social though and experience in the 20 centuryLes structured social environments provide more free to children and adolescents and in doing so make socialization outcomes less predicable In highly developed societies the transition period between childhood and adult hood has increased by about 15 years since 1600 Ch 16 pp 410417Religious impulse takes literally thousands of forms70 of teenagers agree with the statement god or a higher power care about youThe collective consciousness comprises the common sentiments and values that people share as a result of living togetherThw profane refers to the secular everyday worldThe sacred refers to the religious transcendent world Totems are objects that symbolize the sacredRituals in Durhiems usage are public practices designed to connect people to the sacred Durkhiems theory of religion is a functionalist account It offers useful insights into the role of religion in societyIt was Marx who first stressed how religion often tranquilizers the underprivileged into accepting their lot in life He called religion the opium of the peopleThe routinization of charisma is Webers term for the transformation of divine enlightenment into a permanent feature of everyday life
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