Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)

Study Guide Pt.3

13 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Chapter 14 Pages 411-418 Politics The Future of Democracy Two Cheers for Russian Democracy -Russians supported democracy, but that failed because more than 40% of population was under poverty line. -This leads to the question of what social conditions must exist for a country to become fully democratic? -Now we consider 3 waves of democratization. The Three Waves of Democracy -1. During 1922-1942, fascist, communist, and militaristic movements caused two-thirds of the Z47O/8/024.7,.Les to fall under authoritarian or totalitarian authority. Majority of white people able to vote. -2. Allied in WW2 returned democracy to many of the defeated powers. Military dictatorships replaced many democracies in Latin America, Asian, and Africa. Able to gain back democracy due to the victory of WW2. -3. Began in 1974. Whole series of authoritarian regimes fell. In 1991, Soviet communism collapsed. By 1995, 117 countries were democratic in the sense their citizens could choose representatives in regular, competitive elections. This refers to formal democracies, countries that hold regular competitive elections. Many of these countries are not liberal democracies, which is a country whose citizens enjoy regular elections and freedom, which makes political participation and competition meaningful. Military dictations were thrown out in Portugal and Greece. The Social Preconditions of Democracy -Note that US is not a fan of democracy. -Also, just because US promote democracy, we should not assume that liberal democracy has reached its full potential in that country. -Powerful, pro-democratic foreign states and strong, prosperous middle and working classes are OL-07,O/024.7,.\8-089J:,7,390084OO4Z89K,9OL-07,O/024.7,.\ZLOO8570,/L39K0O088 economically developed countries only if they will prosper and enjoy help from US and European Union. Electronic Democracy -Polls allow politicians to mould public opinion, not just reflect it. -Computers allowed citizens to debate issues and vote on them directly. Political participation is low and declining meaning interest is limited and less than 1/3 of population is participating. Postmaterialism and the Dilemma of Canadian Politics -These are those who believe that growing equality and prosperity in the rich industrialized resulted in a shift from class-based politics to value-based politics. -Argued that liberal democracies are less stratified that both non-liberal democracies and non- democracies. Meaning that liberal democracies, the gap between rich and poor is less extreme and society as a whole is more prosperous. -New left-right political division is based on age differences and postmaterialist issues. www.notesolution.com -Participation of unconventional political activities is common among young, highly educated people. This suggests that the future of Canadian politics may lie outside normal politics. Chapter 18 The Mass Media www.notesolution.com The Significance of the Mass Media Illusion Becomes Reality -Human body and mind are extensions of the mass media. What Are the Mass Media? -Mass media can be defined as to print, radio, television, and other communication technologies. -Mass media and mass communication are used interchangeably to refer to the transmission of information from one person to another. -Media can be defined through technology, therefore, the transfer of information through technology. -Usually one way, meaning many receivers but few senders. Causes of Media Growth -Explained through 3 main factors 1. The protestant reformation: Catholic people relied on priest to tell them what was in the bible. Martin Luther wanted to develop a more personal relationship with the Bible, as it because the first mass media product in the West and the best-selling book. 2. Democratic movements: Second force that promoted growth of the mass media was political democracy. Citizens of France US and other countries demanded and achieved representation in government and at the same time wanted to become literate and gain access to previously restricted centers of learning. 3. Capitalist industrialization: Modern industries required a literate and numerate workforce and needed rapid means of communication to do business efficiently. Turned out to be a major source of profit in their own right. -Mass media are deeply embedded in the religious, political, and economic needs of our society. -Among the most important institutions in our society today. Theories of Media Effects Functionalism -Coordinates the operation of industrial and postindustrial societies. -According to functionalist theorists, it does not end there because in addition, the mass media are also important agents of socialization. -Third function of mass media is social control. Meaning mass media helps to ensure conformity. -Fourth and final function is to provide entertainment. Television, movies, magazines give us pleasure, relaxation, and momentary escape form tension. Conflict Theory -Conflict theorists criticized functionalist approach for paying insufficient attention to the social inequality proposed by the media. -Some people benefit from the mass media more than others and favours the interest of dominant classes and political groups. -Two ways which dominant classes and political groups benefit disproportionately from the mass media. 1. Broadcast beliefs, values, and ideas that create widespread acceptance of the basic structure of society. www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for SOCA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.