Chapter 14 Pages 411-418 Politics
The Future of Democracy
Two Cheers for Russian Democracy
-Russians supported democracy, but that failed because more than 40% of population was under
-This leads to the question of what social conditions must exist for a country to become fully
-Now we consider 3 waves of democratization.
The Three Waves of Democracy
-1. During 1922-1942, fascist, communist, and militaristic movements caused two-thirds of the
ZRUOG¶VGHPRFUDFLes to fall under authoritarian or totalitarian authority. Majority of white people
able to vote.
-2. Allied in WW2 returned democracy to many of the defeated powers. Military dictatorships
replaced many democracies in Latin America, Asian, and Africa. Able to gain back democracy
due to the victory of WW2.
-3. Began in 1974. Whole series of authoritarian regimes fell. In 1991, Soviet communism
collapsed. By 1995, 117 countries were democratic in the sense their citizens could choose
representatives in regular, competitive elections. This refers to formal democracies, countries
that hold regular competitive elections. Many of these countries are not liberal democracies,
which is a country whose citizens enjoy regular elections and freedom, which makes political
participation and competition meaningful. Military dictations were thrown out in Portugal and
The Social Preconditions of Democracy
-Note that US is not a fan of democracy.
-Also, just because US promote democracy, we should not assume that liberal democracy has
reached its full potential in that country.
-Powerful, pro-democratic foreign states and strong, prosperous middle and working classes are
economically developed countries only if they will prosper and enjoy help from US and
-Polls allow politicians to mould public opinion, not just reflect it.
-Computers allowed citizens to debate issues and vote on them directly. Political participation is
low and declining meaning interest is limited and less than 1/3 of population is participating.
Postmaterialism and the Dilemma of Canadian Politics
-These are those who believe that growing equality and prosperity in the rich industrialized
resulted in a shift from class-based politics to value-based politics.
-Argued that liberal democracies are less stratified that both non-liberal democracies and non-
democracies. Meaning that liberal democracies, the gap between rich and poor is less extreme
and society as a whole is more prosperous.
-New left-right political division is based on age differences and postmaterialist issues.