Textbook Notes (363,127)
Canada (158,212)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)

Ungar's Textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

SOLUTIONS TO ORDERCh 16ReligionReligion and societyReligionit help with the terrifying fact that we must dieOffers immortality promise of better times to come security of benevolent spirits who look over us provides and purposes in world that might otherwise seem cruel and senselessContent and intensity of our religious beliefs and the form and frequency of our religious practises are influenced by the structure of society and out place in itGod is very alive in CanadaParticipation in formal religious observance is much less frequent than in pastReligion governs fewer aspects of life then beforeMore Canadians expect that religion can help the deal with restricted range of spiritual issuesScope of religious authority has declinedTheoretical approaches to the sociology of religionDurkhiem Functionalism and the Problem of OrderHockey is Canadas national religionApart for drawing large audience Stanley cup playoffs generate a sense of what Durkheim would call collective effervescenceMany hours each year hockey enthusiasts transcend their everyday lives and experiences intense enjoyment by sharing segments and values of a large collectiveBanish thoughts of their own mortalityStanley cup meets Durkheims def Of a religious experienceHe said when people live together they come to share common sentiments and valuesoThese sentiments and values form a collective conscience thats larger then individualsoWe experience this directly causing us to distinguish the secular everyday world of the profane from the religious transcendent world of the sacredoObjects as symbolizing the sacred called totemsoPublic practises connecting us to sacred called ritualsoEffect or function of rituals and of religion is to reinforce social solidarity said DurkheimoStanley cup regarded as sacred eventMarx Conflict and Religion as a Prop for InequalityDurkheim theory of religion is functionalist accountoffers useful insight into role religion has on societyConflict theorists 2 main criticismsoOveremphasizes religions role in maintain social cohesion really incites social conflictoWhen increases social cohesion it reinforces social inequalityAccording to Marx religion diminishes class conflict called religion the opium of the peopleMost people celebrate the alleged absence of social hierarchyoRobert Bellah called civil religionset of quasireligious beliefs and practise that bind pop Together and justifies it way of lifeFind plenty of examples to illustrate religions role in promoting conflictReligion can maintain social order under some circumstances said DurkheimOften reinforces social inequality said MarxReligion can promote social conflictWeber Social Change and Symbolic InteractionWeber stressed the way religion can contribute to social changeLike Marx Weber interested in explaining rise of modern capitalismLike Marx he prepared to recognize the fundamental importance of the economic factorWebers focus on the worldly significance of the meanings people attach to religious ideas makes him a forerunners of the symbolic interactionist traditionWhat prompted capitalist development in nonCatholic Europe and NA combination ofo1 Favourable economic conditionso2 Spread of certain moral values by the Protestant reformers of sixteenth centuryViews of people like John Wesley and Benjamin Franklinpeople could reduce their religious doubts and assure a state of grace by working diligently and living simplyoWeber Called this Protestant ethicoHe had economic consequencesThe correlation between the Protestant ethic and the strength of capitalist development is weaker than Weber thoughtWebers treatment of the religious factor underlying social change is a useful corrective to Durkheims and Marxs emphasis on religion as a source of social stabilityFeminism and Religious LeadershipMost of todays religious traditions were shaped in agricultural societies that subordinated women to their husbands and fatherswomen should keep silence in the churches shameful for a woman to speak in churchToday feminist criticism of gender discrimination has led people including religious individuals to challenge patriarchal religious doctrines and promote gender equality in positions of religious leadershipIn Canada female clergy grew 61 FROM 1991 to 2001Feminization of religious leadership has occurred only within certain religious traditionsfeminization is already underway
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