Manifesto of the Communist Party
Reading 41: pg 468-473
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
-Marx and Engels foresaw the ride of global capitalism
-Both sociologists viewed the history of class struggles as the oppressor versus the
oppressed, standing in constant opposition to one another, carrying out an
uninterrupted fight that ended in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large
or in the common ruin of the contending classes.
-The arrangement of society takes on various orders (gradation), for example, in
ancient Rome there were patricians, knights, plebeians, and slaves.
-Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great classes:
Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.
Bourgeoisie: Marxism defines the bourgeoisie as the social class that owns the means of
production in a capitalist society. Marxists view the bourgeoisie as emerging from the
wealthy urban classes in pre- and early capitalist societies. (Wikipedia)
-the manufacturing system took place of the feudal system of industry; division of
labor in every business became more common than the labor division of classes
-steam and machinery revolutionized industrial production
-Modern Industry, the place of industrial middle, established the world-market for
which America paved the way
-The market has given an immense development to commerce, navigation, and
communication by land, then to the extension of railways and increased capital.
As a result, the Bourgeoisie developed and thrived while all the remaining classes
were pushed aside, along with old-fashioned industries and modes of production
-The modern Bourgeoisie is the product of a long course of development including
a series of revolutions that would result in the betterment of production and of
-Each step in the development of the Bourgeoisie was accompanied by a
corresponding political advance in that class
-The Bourgeoisie resolved personal wealth into exchange value and set up Free
-Doctors, lawyers, priests, etc became paid wage-laborers
-Family relationships have turned into money relationships
-The Bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments
of productions, as well as society relations.
-Because of the constant need of change, the Bourgeoisie settled all over the globe,
and extended into every market with many connections
-This forced even barbarians to national civilization
-they also gave the market a cosmopolitan character to production and