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SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4- Socializaton

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Chapter 4 Socialization Social isolation and the crystallization of the selfidentity y Socialization the process by which people learn their culture including the norms values and roles and become aware of themselves as they interact with others y Socialization helps us unleash our full human potential by 1 entering and disengaging in from a succession of roles and becoming aware of themselves and of othersy A role is the behaviour that is expected of a person holding a particular position in society y the wild boy of averyonwas a boy who was filthy naked unable to speaknot toilet trained and he appeared to be more animal than human as a result of such observations y Rene Spitz compared children who were being raised in a orphanage with those who were being raised in a prison nursing home While their mothers cared for the babies in the nursing home only 6 nurses cared for the 45 orphans The orphans had less contact with humans as a result of this The orphans were also deprived of social stimuli while the children in the nursing home were not and could see other childrens interactionsy By 912 months the orphans were more susceptible to infections and had a higher death rate than the babies in the nursing home hady By the time they were two or three years old the children from the nursing home were walking and talking compared with fewer than 8 percent of the orphans They also have predicted to have a delayed sexual life once theyve reached maturityy Monkeys that were raised with an artificial mother were later unable to interact normally with other monkeys However when the artificial mother was covered with a soft terry cloth the infant monkeys clung to it in comfort and later exhibited less emotional distress The Harlows discovered that emotional development requires affectionate cradling y They crystallization of self identity during adolescence is just one episode in a lifelong process of socialization THEORIES OF CHILDHOOD SOCIALIZAITONFreud y Socialization begins after birth Infants cry out loud driven my elemental needs and are gratified by food comfort and affection Their needs are satisfied immediately and they are unable to distinguish themselves from their main caregiversbecause of thisy Social interaction soon enables infants to begin developing a self image or sense of self a set of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings y Sigmund Freud proposed the first social scientific interpretation of the process by which the self emerges Freud was the Austrian founder of psychoanalysisy He referred to the part of the self that demands immediate gratification to be the id A self image begins to form as soon as the ids demands are denied not responding to a a baby when it cries y Superego a part of the self that as acts as a repository of cultural standardsinvolves appropriate behaviour and being able to distinguish between right and wrong y According to Freud the ego is a psychological mechanism that balances the conflicting needs of the pleasure seeking id and the restraining superegoy In Freuds viewthe emergence of a superego is a painful and frustrating process y Freud stated that we have to get on with our daily lives by repress memories of denying the id immediate gratificationy Repression involves storing traumatic memories in a part of the self that we are not usually aware of the unconscious
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