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Chapter 4

Sociology Chapter 4.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Sociology Chapter 4 SocializationSocial Isolation and crystallization of self identityLike wild boy of Aveyron children who are raised without social contact ex Locked in attic cannot form intimate social relationships with others remain disinterested in games and only develop the most basic language skillsuncertain how much and what type of social contact they had before being discovered could have been abused so their condition may not be due to only social isolationability to learn culture and become human is only a potential to be actualizedsocialization process by which people learn their culture including norms values and roles and become aware of themselves as they interact with others must take placeRene Spitz compared children being raised in orphanage with children being raised in nursing home Nursing home children had more contact with caregiversdepriving infants of social stimuli for most of day made them less demandingby age 912 orphans were more susceptible to infections and had higher death rate then nursing home babies more nursing home kids were walking at youngage then orphansorphans began playing with genitals at older age impaired sexual lifewithout childhood socialization most of our human potential remains unlockedformation of self continues in adolescence where experiences crystallize selfidentitythis is just one part of lifelong process of socializationrole behavior expected of a person occupying particular position in societyTheories of Childhood SocializationFreudsocial interaction soon enables infants to begin developing a self image or sense ofSelf set of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beingsproposed the first socialscientific interpretation of process by which self emergeshe was Austrian founder of psychoanalysisreferred to part of the self that demands immediate gratification as the idself image begins to emerge as soon as the ids demands are denied Ex Parents dont comfort baby when cries at night learns lessons from experience such as putting itself back to sleepbaby begins to sense that its needs differ from its parents that it has an existence independent of others and that is must somehow balance it needs with realities of lifebc of such lessons in selfcontrolex Toilet training child eventually develops sense of appropriate behavior and right and wrong a personal conscience called a superego formsits a repository of cultural standards child also develops third component of self called egopsychological mechanism that in well adjusted individuals balances conflicting needs of the pleasure seeking id and restraining superegoemergence of superego is painful and frustrating to get on with daily lives we must repress memories of denying the id immediate gratificationrepression involves storing these memories in part of self we are normally unaware of the unconsciousrepressed memories influence emotions and actions even after they are stored away could cause possible psychological problemssome repression is cost of civilization cant live in orderly society without denying idCriticism 1 connections bw early childhood development and adult personality are more complex than Freud assumedwrote that when ego fails to balance needs of id and superego people develop personality disorders Typically occurs if young child is raised in overly repressive atmosphere recommended raising young children in relaxed and permissive environment to avoid problemsresearch shows no connection bw aspects of early childhood training and development of well adjusted adults2 Many sociologist criticize Freud for gender bias in his analysis of male and female sexualityFreud argued psychologically normal women are immature and dependent of men bc they enjoy the male sexual organ women who are mature and independent classified as abnormal
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