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SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11andChapter 14.doc

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 11 pg339346Future of Democracysupport for democracy in Russia fell because economy collapseddemocratic sentiment weakened as economic conditions worseneddemocracy allowed few people to enrich themselves at expense of more peoplemany citizens democracy bought distress rather then freedomlimited success of Russian democracy raises question what social conditions must exist for country to be fully democraticThree waves of DemocracyFirst wave more then half of white adult males in US allowed voting in 1828 by 1926 33 countries were at least minimally democratic countries included most of Western Europe British Dominions Japan and four Latin American countriesdemocratic reversal happened bw 19221942 where fascist communist and militaristic movements caused 23 of worlds democracies to fall under authoritarian or totalitarian ruleSecond wave bw 19431962 allied victory in WWII returned democracy to defeated power Beginning of end of colonial rule brought democracy in Africa and other places Some Latin American countries formed limited and unstable democraciesby late 1950s second wave was ending world was going through second reversal Military dictatorships replaced many democracies in Latin America Asia and AfricaThird wave largest began in 1974 with overthrow in military dictatorship in Portugal and Greece crested in early 90sauthoritarian regimes fell in many countries by 95 most of world was democratic in sense that citizens could choose representatives in regular competitive electionsThird wave less dramatic by figured refer to formal democracies countries that hold regular competitive elections Many are not liberal democracies lack freedoms and constitutional protections that make political participation and competition meaningfulin formal but not liberal democracies political power might be with a military that is largely unaffected by party in officecertain groups of people may not be able to take part in electionlegist lave and judicial branches of government may not constrain power of executive branch citizens may suffer from unjustified detention exile and terror New democracies experienced a decline in freedoms and protections still too early to tell whether rdthis is end of 3 wave of beginning of a third wave reversalSocial Preconditions of Democracyliberal democracies emerge and endure when countries have economic growth industrialization urbanization spread of literacy and gradual decrease in economic inequalityeconomic development creates middle and working classes that are large well organized literate and well off When these classes become powerful demands for civil liberties and right to vote and run for office have to be recognized if notcan start revolutions against governmentsfavorable external political and military circumstances help liberal democracy endure liberal democracies collapse when fascist communist and military regimesempires defeat themrevive when democratic alliances win world wars and authoritarian empires break up less coercive forms of political intervention can be effective toopowerfulprodemocratic foreign states and strong prosperous middle and working classes are best guarantee for liberally democracy bc LD will spread in less economically developed countries only if they prosper and enjoy support from US and EU the centers of liberal democracybut take into consideration that 1 US is not always friend of democracy ex supplying weapons to non democratic countries bc in their self interests and 2 Shouldnt assume that bc US promotes democracy in many parts of world that liberal democracy has reached full potential in their country or Canada ex limited political participation of disadvantaged groupssome think computers will increase Canadians political involvement and help solve problem of unequal political participation by helping disadvantages grouped in political process others think growing affluence means there are fewer disadvantages groups to being withliberal democracy can realize full potential if political and economic inequality are addressed
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