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Sociology Full TB Defs.docx

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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DefinitionsChapter 1Social solidarity refers to 1 the degree to which a group members share beliefs and values and 2 the intensity and frequency of their interaction Social structures are relatively stable patterns of social relationsMicrostructures are the patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during facetoface interaction Families friendship circles and work associations are all examples of microstructuresMacrostructures are overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and acquaintances These include classes bureaucracies and power systems such as patriarchy Patriarchy is the traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men Global structures are patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level They include international organizations patterns of worldwide travel and communication and the economic relations between countriesSociological imagination is the quality if mind that enables a person to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures Scientific Revolution began about 1150 It encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the workings of society must be based on solid evidence not just on speculation Democratic Revolution began about 1750 It suggested that people are responsible for organizing society and that human intervention can therefore solve social problemsIndustrial Revolution often regarded as the most important event in world history since the development of agriculture and cities refers to the rapid economic transformation that began in Britain in the 1780s It involved the largerscale application of science and technology to industrial processes the creation of factories and the formation of a working class Functionalism stresses that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable social structures It underlines how social structures maintain or undermine social stability It emphasizes that social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences And it suggests that reestablishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems Dysfunctional consequences are effects of social structures that create social instabilityManifest functions are visible and intended effects of social structuresLatent functions are invisible and unintended effects of social structuresConflict theory generally focuses on large macrolevel structures and shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some circumstances and social change in others Class conflict is the struggle bw classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classesThe Protestant ethic is the belief that religious doubts can be reduced and a state of grace ensured if people work diligently and live ascetically According to Weber the Protestant work ethic had the unintended effect of increasing savings and investment and thus stimulating capitalist growthSymbolistic interactionism focuses on interaction in microlevel settings and emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour requires understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstancesSocial constructionsim argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturallyFeminist theory claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a persons opportunities in life It holds male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention It examines the operation of patriarchy in both micro and macro
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