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Chapter 4

SOCA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Social Isolation, Lev Vygotsky, Symbolic Interactionism

Course Code
Mc Kinon

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Chapter 4: Socialization
Social Isolation & the Crystallization of Self Identity
Wild boy of Aveyron [was isolated from humans, and thus, abnormal]
Suffer from congenitally subnormal intelligence
oUncertain how much or what type of social control they had before
Socialization: process by which ppl learn their culture
oUnleashes human potential
oThey do so by:
1. Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles
2. Becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others
Role: the behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position
Rene Spitz: did natural experiment:
oChildren raised in prisons vs. Those raised in an orphanage
oPrison children had normal growth; orphans growth was much slower
oConcluded childhood socialization is important in making us fully human
w/o childhood socialization, human potential remains undeveloped
adolescence: turbulent period of rapid self development
agents of socialization: families, schools, peer groups, mass media
Theories of Childhood Socialization
founder of psychoanalysis
theory: self emerges during early social interaction and early childhood experience
exerts a lasting impact on personality development
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Self Image/ Sense of Self: set of ideas and attitudes abt who they are as independent
oSelf imagine begins to emerge as soon as ids demands are denied
Child eventually develops a sense of what constitutes appropriate behaviour
Unconscious: part of self that contains repressed memories we are not aware of
oEmergence of superego is painful/frustrating process
oRepressed memories influence emotions/actions even after they’re stored
oPainful instances of childhood repression may cause psychological problems
oRequiring therapy to correct
oSome repression is the cost of civilization
When ego fails to balance the needs of id and the superego, indi develop personality
Components of the Well Adjusted Self [Freud]:
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CRITICISM of Freuds argument:
o1. The connection b/w early childhood development and adult personality are
more complex than Freud assumed
Failed to anticipate that depth, problem solving ability, maturity
might derive from painful experiences
o2. Gender bias in Freuds analysis of male and female sexuality
Freud: normal women are immature n dependent on men b/c they
envy male sexual organ
Classified mature and independent women as abnormal
o3. For neglecting socialization AFTER childhood
Freud: believed human personality is fixed at abt age 5
WRONG! Socialization continues throughout the life course
Cooleys Symbolic I nteractionism
Charles Horton Cooley:
oIntroduced idea of the looking glass self
oFounder of symbolic Interactionism
oObserved that when we interact with others, they gesture and react to us
Allows us to imagine how we appear to them
We then judge how others evaluate us
From these judgements, we develop a self concept or a set of
feelings/ideas of who we are
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