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Chapter 8: Social Stratification
Materialism: the attempt to satisfy needs by buying products or experiences.
Quintile: Lowest Quintile Second Quintile Third Quintile Fourth Quintile Highest
Human Capital: is the sum of useful skills and knowledge than an individual posseses.
Human Capital Theory stresses the increasing centrality of education as a factor affecting
Social Capital: refers to the networks or connections that individuals possess.
Cultural Capital: is the stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of securing a
Natural Talent --------- Rewards
Natural Talent + Effort --------- Rewards
Natural Talent + Effort + Skill-rich environments + Developed Skills --------- Rewards
Natural Talent + Effort + Skill-rich environments + Developed Skills + Social and Cultural
Capital --------- Rewards
Low Income Cutoff: is Statistic Canada’s term for the income threshold below which a family
devotes a larger share of its income to the necessities of food, shelter, and clothing then an
average family would, likely resulting in strained circumstances.
Myth 1: People are poor because they don’t want to work.
Myth 2: The overwhelming majority of poor people are immigrants.
Myth 3: The welfare rolls are crammed with young people who ought to be earning a living.
Myth 4: Most poor people are trapped in poverty.
Individual attributes (physical/mental disabilities) have a higher risk of living in
Attitudes of individuals; not on attributes inherited, but on attributes or stigmas that
are acquired (“blaming the victim”, bad attitudes).