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SOCA01H3 Chapter Notes -Machine Translation, Pre-Medical, Nonverbal Communication


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Socionotes | Chapter 5
1
Chapter 5: Social Interaction
Social Interaction: the creation of a novel way for ppl to communicate face to face, acting, & reacting in
relation to each other
The Structure of Social Interaction
1. Status
o Recognized positions occupied by interacting people
o Each person occupy >1 statuses [ex. Wife/mother/flight attendant]
o Status set: entire ensemble of statuses occupied by 1 individual
o Ascribed status: involuntary status [ex-daughter]
o Achieved status: voluntary status [ex-accountant]
o Master status: status that is MOST INFLUENTIAL in shaping a person’s life @ given time
2. Roles
o Sets of expected behaviours
o Ppl “occupy” statuses, “perform” roles
o Role set: cluster of roles attached to a single status
i. Ex) flight attendant role as → server, in flight safety expert
3. Norms
o Generally accepted ways of doing things
o Prescriptive: suggest what is expected to do while performing a role
o Proscriptive: suggest what is expected NOT to do while performing a role
o Norms often change over time, some universal, some differ from situation to situation,
and role to role
Flight
attendant
Wife
Mother
In Flight Safety Expert
Intimate
Companion
Home
Owner
Medical Caregiver
In Flight
Server
Status Set
Role Set

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Socionotes | Chapter 5
2
Case Study: Stewardesses
Changing Roles:
o Stewardesses used to have ‘nurse-like’ uniforms
o Uniform changed to ones done by fashion designers
o Movies/books solidified stewardess’s role as sex objects
Ex) Boeing Boeing [movie], Coffee Tea or Me [book]
Enforcement of Norms:
o Ex) had to be single [until 1968]
o Could not be pregnant [until 1970]
o Had to be attractive, have a good smile, achieve certain IQ
o Retirement age of 32
o Have “certain look”; slim, wholesome
o Had to wear girdles
o Expected to be charming and solicitous at all times
Role Conflict & Role Strain
o Role Conflict: when 2 or more statuses held at the same time place contradictory role
demands on a person
o Role Strain: when incompatible role demands are placed on a person in a single status
Role Conflict Role Strain
What Shapes Social Interaction?
Norms, roles, & statuses are building blocks of face to face communication
Just as building blocks need cement to hold them together, norms, roles, & statuses require
‘social cement’
How is social interaction maintained?
o Ways: “cement” → by means of domination, competition, & cooperation
Wife
Flight
Attendant
Mother
Stewardess
Be
Suggestive
Be Polite

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Socionotes | Chapter 5
3
External
stimulus
Physiological
response and
initial emotion
Cultural
Script
Modified
Emotional
Response
The Sociology of Emotions
Laughter and Humour
Research Results:
o Speakers laugh more than listeners do
o Women laugh more than men in everyday conversations
o Biggest discrepancy when speaker→ women; listener→ men
o Men “get” more laughs since women laugh more
o Ppl w/ higher status get more laughs, ppl w/ lower status laugh more→ “downward
humour”
o Laughter often is a signal of dominance or subservience
Much social interaction take place among status equals
o Often direct humour at perceived social inferiors
Ex: While Americans joke about Black, English laugh at Irish, French at Belgians
Put down”: joke about a socially marginal & powerless group
o Ex) Alzheimer’s disease
Jokes invert or pervert reality
o Let us see beyond the serious, taken for granted world
o Enable us to see the structure of society that lies beneath our laughter
Emotion Management
Argument:
Emotions are like a common cold, just happens to us
o An external disturbance causes a reaction that we experience involuntarily
o External disturbance may involve exposure to a particular virus that causes us to
experience emotions such as fear
o We cannot control our body’s patterned response
Against:
We can & often do control our emotions
o Emotions do not happen to us, we manage them
o Ex) If grizzly attacks you, you can run away or you can calm yourself, play dead & pray
o We tend to follow certain cultural “scripts”
We usually know the designated emotional response to a particular external
stimulus & we try to respond accordingly
If we don’t, we are likely to feel guilty and disappointed
How we get emotional?
For ex) grizzly Your pulse rate ↑, You have learnt that playing still fearful, you act
Bear attacks You experience fear dead ↑ survival chances according to cul. Script.
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