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SOCA01H3 Chapter Notes -Machine Translation, Pre-Medical, Nonverbal Communication

Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Socionotes | Chapter 5
Chapter 5: Social Interaction
Social Interaction: the creation of a novel way for ppl to communicate face to face, acting, & reacting in
relation to each other
The Structure of Social Interaction
1. Status
o Recognized positions occupied by interacting people
o Each person occupy >1 statuses [ex. Wife/mother/flight attendant]
o Status set: entire ensemble of statuses occupied by 1 individual
o Ascribed status: involuntary status [ex-daughter]
o Achieved status: voluntary status [ex-accountant]
o Master status: status that is MOST INFLUENTIAL in shaping a person’s life @ given time
2. Roles
o Sets of expected behaviours
o Ppl “occupy” statuses, “perform” roles
o Role set: cluster of roles attached to a single status
i. Ex) flight attendant role as → server, in flight safety expert
3. Norms
o Generally accepted ways of doing things
o Prescriptive: suggest what is expected to do while performing a role
o Proscriptive: suggest what is expected NOT to do while performing a role
o Norms often change over time, some universal, some differ from situation to situation,
and role to role
In Flight Safety Expert
Medical Caregiver
In Flight
Status Set
Role Set

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Socionotes | Chapter 5
Case Study: Stewardesses
Changing Roles:
o Stewardesses used to have ‘nurse-like’ uniforms
o Uniform changed to ones done by fashion designers
o Movies/books solidified stewardess’s role as sex objects
Ex) Boeing Boeing [movie], Coffee Tea or Me [book]
Enforcement of Norms:
o Ex) had to be single [until 1968]
o Could not be pregnant [until 1970]
o Had to be attractive, have a good smile, achieve certain IQ
o Retirement age of 32
o Have “certain look”; slim, wholesome
o Had to wear girdles
o Expected to be charming and solicitous at all times
Role Conflict & Role Strain
o Role Conflict: when 2 or more statuses held at the same time place contradictory role
demands on a person
o Role Strain: when incompatible role demands are placed on a person in a single status
Role Conflict Role Strain
What Shapes Social Interaction?
Norms, roles, & statuses are building blocks of face to face communication
Just as building blocks need cement to hold them together, norms, roles, & statuses require
‘social cement’
How is social interaction maintained?
o Ways: “cement” → by means of domination, competition, & cooperation
Be Polite

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Socionotes | Chapter 5
response and
initial emotion
The Sociology of Emotions
Laughter and Humour
Research Results:
o Speakers laugh more than listeners do
o Women laugh more than men in everyday conversations
o Biggest discrepancy when speaker→ women; listener→ men
o Men “get” more laughs since women laugh more
o Ppl w/ higher status get more laughs, ppl w/ lower status laugh more→ “downward
o Laughter often is a signal of dominance or subservience
Much social interaction take place among status equals
o Often direct humour at perceived social inferiors
Ex: While Americans joke about Black, English laugh at Irish, French at Belgians
Put down”: joke about a socially marginal & powerless group
o Ex) Alzheimer’s disease
Jokes invert or pervert reality
o Let us see beyond the serious, taken for granted world
o Enable us to see the structure of society that lies beneath our laughter
Emotion Management
Emotions are like a common cold, just happens to us
o An external disturbance causes a reaction that we experience involuntarily
o External disturbance may involve exposure to a particular virus that causes us to
experience emotions such as fear
o We cannot control our body’s patterned response
We can & often do control our emotions
o Emotions do not happen to us, we manage them
o Ex) If grizzly attacks you, you can run away or you can calm yourself, play dead & pray
o We tend to follow certain cultural “scripts”
We usually know the designated emotional response to a particular external
stimulus & we try to respond accordingly
If we don’t, we are likely to feel guilty and disappointed
How we get emotional?
For ex) grizzly Your pulse rate ↑, You have learnt that playing still fearful, you act
Bear attacks You experience fear dead ↑ survival chances according to cul. Script.
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