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Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 4


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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Chapter 4: Socialization Social Isolation & the Crystallization of Self Identity  Wild boy of Aveyron [was isolated from humans, and thus, abnormal]  Suffer from congenitally subnormal intelligence o Uncertain how much or what type of social control they had before  Socialization: process by which ppl learn their culture o Unleashes human potential o They do so by:  1. Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles  2. Becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others  Role: the behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position  Rene Spitz: did natural experiment: o Children raised in prisons vs. Those raised in an orphanage o Prison children had normal growth; orphans growth was much slower o Concluded childhood socialization is important in making us fully human  w/o childhood socialization, human potential remains undeveloped  adolescence: turbulent period of rapid self development  agents of socialization: families, schools, peer groups, mass media Theories of Childhood Socialization Freud  founder of psychoanalysis  theory: self emerges during early social interaction and early childhood experience exerts a lasting impact on personality development  Self Image/ Sense of Self: set of ideas and attitudes abt who they are as independent beings o Self imagine begins to emerge as soon as id’s demands are denied  Child eventually develops a sense of what constitutes appropriate behaviour  Unconscious: part of self that contains repressed memories we are not aware of o Emergence of superego is painful/frustrating process o Repressed memories influence emotions/actions even after they’re stored away o Painful instances of childhood repression may cause psychological problems o Requiring therapy to correct o Some repression is the cost of civilization 1  When ego fails to balance the needs of id and the superego, indi develop personality disorders SocioNotes | Chapter 4 Components of the Well Adjusted Self [Freud]: EGO: balances conflicting needs of pleasure seeking id and restraining superego ID: SUPEREGO demands immediate repository of cultural standards gratification [personal conscience]  CRITICISM of Freud’s argument: o 1. The connection b/w early childhood development and adult personality are more complex than Freud assumed  Failed to anticipate that depth, problem solving ability, maturity might derive from painful experiences o 2. Gender bias in Freud’s analysis of male and female sexuality  Freud: normal women are immature n dependent on men b/c they envy male sexual organ  Classified mature and independent women as abnormal o 3. For neglecting socialization AFTER childhood  Freud: believed human personality is fixed at abt age 5  WRONG! Socialization continues throughout the life course Cooley’s Symbolic Interactionism  Charles Horton Cooley: o Introduced idea of the “looking glass self” o Founder of symbolic Interactionism o Observed that when we interact with others, they gesture and react to us  Allows us to imagine how we appear to them  We then judge how others evaluate us  From these judgements, we develop a self concept or a set of feelings/ideas of who we are o our feelings abt who we are depend largely on how we see ourslves evaluated by others o just as we see physical body reflected in the mirror, we see our social selves reflected in 2 ppl’s gestures and reactions to us o young women seem to me MOST prone to such behaviour o women having difficulty in achieving ideal body weight/shape promoted by mass media SocioNotes | Chapter 4 Mead George Herbert Mead  Developed idea of the looking glass self  Agreed with Freud  I: subjective & impulsive aspect of the self that is present from birth  Me: the objective component of the self that emerges as ppl communicate symbolically and learn to take the role of the other o Unique human capacity to “take the role of the other o All human communication depends on being able to take the role of the other  Ex. Interpreting mother’s smile o Me is not present from birth, emerges gradually with social interaction Self as developing in 4 stages of role taking: 1. Children learn to use language and other symbols by imitating imp ppl in their lives, such as mother n father: significant others 2. Children pretend to be other ppl a. Ex: role imaginations such as ‘house’, ‘doctor,’ ‘school’ 3. When they reach abt age 7, children learn to play complex games requiring they simultaneously take the role of several other ppl a. Ex: baseball infielders 4. Taking role of generalized other: person’s image of cultural standards & how they apply to him Piaget Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget:  Divided development of thinking [or cognitive] skills during childhood years into 4 stages: st o Sensorimotor stage: 1 two yrs of life  Children explore world through their 5 senses  Cannot think using symbols o Preoperational Stage: b/w ages 2-7  Children begin to think symbolically  Language and imagination blossom  Still unable to think abstractly o Concrete Operational Stage: b/w ages 7-11  Abstract thinking begins at age 7  Able to see connection b/w causes and effects o Formal Operational Stage: by abt age 12 3  Develop ability to think more abstractly/critically SocioNotes | Chapter 4 Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg  Showed how children’s moral reasoning—their ability to judge right from wrong—also passes through development stages  Children distinguish right from wrong based on whether something gratifies their immediate needs  Pre-conventional Stage: what is “right” simply satisfies the young child o Ex) snatching cookie from someone is RIGHT  Conventional Stage: teenagers begin to judge right & wrong whether specific actions please their parents/teachers and are consistent with cultural norms o Ex) knows getting caught will result in punishment  Some never advance beyond conventional morality  Postconventional Stage: think critically about moral principles o Ponder meaning of freedom, justice, equality o Accepting moral principles independently, not what others think Vygotsky  Vygotsky & Gilligan offer sociological approaches to thinking abt cognitive & moral development  Ways of thinking aren’t much determined by innate factors as t
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