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Sociology (1,053)
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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Mc Kinon

Sociology Chapter 2 First, our values often help us decide which problems are worth investigating. These values may reflect the typical outlook of our class, race, gender, region, historical period. Second, our values lead us to formulate and adopt favored theories for interpreting and explaining those problems Third, sociologists interpretations are influenced by previous research, which we consult to find out what we already know about a subject. And fourth the methods we use to gather data mould perceptions. Values, theories, previous research, methods, reality Scientific vs. Unscientific thinking In science, seeing is believing; in everyday life believing is seeing. Our everyday life our biases easily influence our observations. This often leads us to draw incorrect conclusions about what we see. Sociologists develop ways of collecting, observing, and thinking about evidence that minimize their chance of drawing biased conclusions. 10 unscientific thinking 1) Knowledge based on tradition, some tradition knowledge are valid. Science is required to separate valid from invalid knowledge 2) Knowledge based on authority, we often think something is true because we read it or hear it from expert, scientists question authority to more valid knowledge 3) Knowledge based on casual observation, we are careless observers. Uncertainty can be reduced observing in conscious and deliberate manner and by recording observations 4) Knowledge based on overgeneralization, you may think if a poor person works hard an becomes rich and not about the poor people who work hard but remain poor, scientists ensure research to find a conclusion. 5) Knowledge based on selective observation, we unconsciously ignore evidence that challenged our beliefs. 6) Knowledge based on qualifications, exceptions to rules are often made in everydaylife. In everyday life qualifications are easily accepted as valid, in scientific inquiry they are treated as statements that must be carefully examined in the light of evidence 7) Knowledge based on illogical reasoning, because it often so happened before it will happen again 8) Knowledge based on ego-defence, I just cant be wrong 9) Knowledge of premature closure of inquiry, this way of thinking involves deciding that all relevant evidence has been gathered on a particular subject, scientists believe theories and ideas are only temporary 10)Knowledge based on mystification, when we cant find any rational explanation for a phenomenon, we may attribute it to forces that cannot be observed or understood. Conducting research Research cycle www.notesolution.com
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