Textbook Notes (381,132)
CA (168,365)
UTSC (19,305)
Sociology (1,063)
SOCA01H3 (481)
Mc Kinon (40)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

7 Pages
101 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Mc Kinon

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Sociology Chapter 2
First, our values often help us decide which problems are worth investigating. These
values may reflect the typical outlook of our class, race, gender, region, historical
period.
Second, our values lead us to formulate and adopt favored theories for interpreting
and explaining those problems
Third, sociologists’ interpretations are influenced by previous research, which we
consult to find out what we already know about a subject. And fourth the methods
we use to gather data mould perceptions.
Values, theories, previous research, methods, reality
Scientific vs. Unscientific thinking
In science, seeing is believing; in everyday life believing is seeing. Our everyday life
our biases easily influence our observations. This often leads us to draw incorrect
conclusions about what we see. Sociologists develop ways of collecting, observing,
and thinking about evidence that minimize their chance of drawing biased
conclusions. 10 unscientific thinking
1)Knowledge based on tradition, some tradition knowledge are valid. Science is
required to separate valid from invalid knowledge
2)Knowledge based on authority, we often think something is true because we read
it or hear it from expert, scientists question authority to more valid knowledge
3)Knowledge based on casual observation, we are careless observers. Uncertainty
can be reduced observing in conscious and deliberate manner and by recording
observations
4)Knowledge based on overgeneralization, you may think if a poor person works
hard an becomes rich and not about the poor people who work hard but remain
poor, scientists ensure research to find a conclusion.
5)Knowledge based on selective observation, we unconsciously ignore evidence that
challenged our beliefs.
6)Knowledge based on qualifications, exceptions to rules are often made in
everydaylife. In everyday life qualifications are easily accepted as valid, in
scientific inquiry they are treated as statements that must be carefully examined
in the light of evidence
7)Knowledge based on illogical reasoning, because it often so happened before it
will happen again
8)Knowledge based on ego-defence, I just cant be wrong
9)Knowledge of premature closure of inquiry, this way of thinking involves deciding
that all relevant evidence has been gathered on a particular subject, scientists
believe theories and ideas are only temporary
10)Knowledge based on mystification, when we cant find any rational explanation
for a phenomenon, we may attribute it to forces that cannot be observed or
understood.
Conducting research
Research cycle
www.notesolution.com
First, the Sociologist must formulate a research question. a research question must
be stated so it can be answered by systematically collecting and analyzing
sociological data.
Second, they must review the existing research literature, Researchers must elaborate
their research questions in light of what other sociologists have already debated and
discovered
Third, selecting a research method. When choosing method, we must keep strengths
and weaknesses in mind.
Fourth, collecting data by observing subjects, interviewing them, reading documents
produced by or about them.
Fifth step of the research is analyzing the data, the most challenging. It is the time
when data confirm some of your expectations and confound others, requiring you to
think creatively about familiar issues, reconsider the relevant theoretical and
research literature.
Publication is a sixth step, it allows sociologists to scrutinize and criticize the
research and be corrected.
Ethical Considerations
Researchers must be mindful of the need to respect their subjects rights which
means in the first instance that researchers must do their subjects no harm
Research subject must have the right to decide whether their attitudes and
behaviors may be revealed to the public
Researchers cannot use data in a way that allows them to be traced to a particular
subject
Subjects must be told how the information they supply will be used. They must also
be allowed to judge the degree of personal risk involved in answering questions
Field methods: from detached observation to going native
Some sociologists undertake field research or research based on the observation of
people in their natural settings. The filed researcher goes wherever people meet.
When they arrive in the field, researchers come prepared with strategies to avoid
getting things terribly wrong
One such strategy is detached observation, this approach involves classifying and
counting the behavior of interest according to a predetermined scheme
Two main problems confound first, the presence of the researcher may itself affect
the behavior of the people being observed. Sociologists sometimes call this problem
Hawthorne effect because researchers at the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne
factory in the 1930s claimed to find that workers productively increased no matter
how they changed their work environment
The second problem with direction observation is that the meaning of the
observation behavior may remain obscure to the researcher
Sociologists spend years living with a people so they can learn their language,
values, mannerism and develop an understanding of their behavior
This type of research is called ethnographic when it describes the entire way of life
of a people
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Sociology Chapter 2 First, our values often help us decide which problems are worth investigating. These values may reflect the typical outlook of our class, race, gender, region, historical period. Second, our values lead us to formulate and adopt favored theories for interpreting and explaining those problems Third, sociologists interpretations are influenced by previous research, which we consult to find out what we already know about a subject. And fourth the methods we use to gather data mould perceptions. Values, theories, previous research, methods, reality Scientific vs. Unscientific thinking In science, seeing is believing; in everyday life believing is seeing. Our everyday life our biases easily influence our observations. This often leads us to draw incorrect conclusions about what we see. Sociologists develop ways of collecting, observing, and thinking about evidence that minimize their chance of drawing biased conclusions. 10 unscientific thinking 1) Knowledge based on tradition, some tradition knowledge are valid. Science is required to separate valid from invalid knowledge 2) Knowledge based on authority, we often think something is true because we read it or hear it from expert, scientists question authority to more valid knowledge 3) Knowledge based on casual observation, we are careless observers. Uncertainty can be reduced observing in conscious and deliberate manner and by recording observations 4) Knowledge based on overgeneralization, you may think if a poor person works hard an becomes rich and not about the poor people who work hard but remain poor, scientists ensure research to find a conclusion. 5) Knowledge based on selective observation, we unconsciously ignore evidence that challenged our beliefs. 6) Knowledge based on qualifications, exceptions to rules are often made in everydaylife. In everyday life qualifications are easily accepted as valid, in scientific inquiry they are treated as statements that must be carefully examined in the light of evidence 7) Knowledge based on illogical reasoning, because it often so happened before it will happen again 8) Knowledge based on ego-defence, I just cant be wrong 9) Knowledge of premature closure of inquiry, this way of thinking involves deciding that all relevant evidence has been gathered on a particular subject, scientists believe theories and ideas are only temporary 10)Knowledge based on mystification, when we cant find any rational explanation for a phenomenon, we may attribute it to forces that cannot be observed or understood. Conducting research Research cycle www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit