Textbook Notes (372,124)
CA (164,050)
UTSC (18,687)
Sociology (1,062)
SOCA01H3 (480)


6 Pages

Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Chapter 18: The Mass Media The Significance of the Mass Media Illusion becomes Reality  The Truman Show: Jim Carrey as an insurance agent who discovers everyone is an actor  The Matrix: Keanu Reeves finds that his identity and his life are illusions  Everyone is hardwired to a computer that uses humans as an energy sources o Comp supplies ppl with nutrients to keep them alive & simulated realities to keep them happy  American Psycho: how ppl become victims of mass media and consumerism  These movie suggests that fantasy worlds created by mass media are only realities we know  We spend close to 40% of our time interacting with mass media  Marshall McLuhan:coined the term ‘global village’: media are extensions of human body & mind What are the Mass Media?  Mass Media: refers to print, radio, TV, and other communication technologies  Mass media & mass communication → used interchangeably to refer to the transmission of info from one person to another  Mass → implies media reach many ppl; Media→ signifies that communication doesn’t take place directly thru face to face interaction  Mass media communication is usually one way or one sided  There are few senders [producers] and many receivers [audience]  Thus, members of the audience cannot exert much influence on mass media o can only chose to tune in or tune out [tuning out difficult] o few ppl want to be cultural misfits o doesn’t mean ppl are always passive consumers of mass media  We filter, interpret and resist what we see & hear if it contradicts of beliefs o Media sources still dominate  New media frontier blurs the distinction b/w producer and consumer, more democratic for those who can afford it The Rise of the Mass Media st  1 developed system of writing appeared about 5500 years ago in Egypt & Southern Iraq  Communication done via horse, railroad or a ship→ Too slow and costly  Telegraph gave new meaning to time change 1 th  Electronic media are creatures of the 20 century  WWW → around 1991...close to billion people uses the Web SocioNotes | Chapter 18 Causes of Media Growth Can be explained by 3 main factors: religious, political, and economic 1. The Protestant Reformation: th o In 16 cent, Catholic ppl relied on priests to tell them what was in the Bible o Martin Luther protested—wanted ppl to develop more personal relationship with Bible o New form of Christianity → known as Protestantism i. Bible became 1 mass media product o Technological improvements in papermaking & printing made the diffusion of the Bible & other books possible o Most significant landmark was Johann Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press i. Printed book enabled expansion of ideas o Contributed to the Renaissance [a scholarly & artistic revival that began in Italy] and to the rise of modern science 2. Democratic Movements: th o From 18 cent on, citizens of France, U.S. and other countries demanded and achieved representation in gov’t o Wanted to become literate and gain access to previously restricted centres of learning o Democratic gov’t depended on an informed citizenry & thus encouraged growth of free press o Today, mass media, esp TV, mould our outlook on politics o TV’s influence became evident in 1960 US Presidential debate o Soon, Canadian politicians were hiring “image consultants” o Negative ads may backfire [ex- Jean Chretians facial paralysis—dropped PC support] 3. Capitalist Industrialization: o Modern industries require literate & numerate work force o Needed rapid means of communication to do business efficiently o Mass media turned out to be a major source of profits o b/w 1986 and 1996, consumer market for entertainment service grew by 50% Theories of Media Effects Functionalism:  George Hegel: daily ritual of reading the newspaper unites the secular world, just how daily prayer once united the Christian world  Nationwide contribution of newspapers, magazines, movies, TV shows cements the large, 2 socially diverse, and geographically far-flung population of Canada 1. Mass media perform an important function by coordinating the operation of industrial and post-industrial societies 2. Mass media are important agents of socialization SocioNotes | Chapter 18 3. Social Control: mass media help to ensure conformity  By exposing deviants and showcasing law enforcement officials and model citizens, mass media reinforces ideas about what kinds of ppl deserve punishment and who deserves rewards  They reproduce the moral order 4. To provide entertainment.  b/c mass media products requires little effort on the part of the audience  relieve stress Conflict Theory  functionalism offers valuable insights into operations of mass media  conflict theory criticizes functional approach for paying insufficient attention to social inequality o functionalism exaggerates mass media benefits o mass media favors interests of dominant classes and political groups  2 ways in which dominant classes and political groups benefit disproportionately: o Mass media broadcast beliefs, values, idea that create widespread acceptance of basic structure of societies [ie injustices and inequalities] o Ownership of MM is in hands of small # of ppl and is profitable for those MEDIA OWNERSHIP:  Most of mass media owned by SIX multimedia giants  About 90% of MM in Canada are privately owned  Not just the degree of media concentration has changed, but the form as well  Media concentration involved mainly “horizontal integration” o Small number of firms try to control as much production as possible  From 1990’s “vertical integration” visible o Media firms sought to control production in many fields  Media “conglomerates”: may own any combo of television networks, stations, production facilities, video store chains, sports teams, software companies, etc o Can create content and deliver it in a variety of forms o Ex) Rogers Communications – own Blue Jays, AOL/Time warner—Netscape, Amazon... MEDIA BIAS:  Conflict theorists: argue that when a few conglomerates dominate the production of news, they squeeze out alternative points of view  How mass media support core societal values
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.