Textbook Notes (369,050)
Canada (162,363)
Sociology (1,062)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 10


7 Pages

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Andrew Mc Kinnon

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CHAPTER 5 RACE AND ETHNICITY The Great Britain Robbery Dr. Samuel George Morton > collected and measured human skulls - claimed that ppl with the biggest brains were whites of European origin > then Asians, Native North Americans and at the bottom – blacks - showed that system of social inequality had biological roots - his ideas were used to justify 2 of the most oppressive forms of domination and injustice: colonization and slavery - 3 problems with his findings: o cannot determine race by skull shape o morton’s collection of skull > unrepresentative sample o he didn’t ensure that the sex’s composition of the white and black skulls were identical Race, Biology and Society Canadian professor, Peter Sandiford > wanted Canada to institute selective immigration to ensure that only the best and the brightest arrived > IQ tests to support his selective immigration policy Results: “profoundly disturbing” evidence > Japanese and Chinese ppl – highest intelligence scores (he didn’t predict this) Ppl who face widespread prejudice and discrimination often enter sports, entertainment and crime in disproportionately large numbers for lack of other ways to improve their social and economic positions …other avenues of upward mobility tend to be blocked Prejudice = an attitude that judges a person on his or her group’s real or imagined characteristics Discrimination = unfair treatment of ppl bc of their group membership Tiger Woods > Cablinasian (ethnicity) Race = social construct used to distinguish ppl in terms of one or more physical markers - sociological concept is an invaluable analytical tool > refers to social significance that is widely attached to physical differences rather than to biological differences that shape behavior patterns Scapegoat = is a disadvantaged person or category of ppl that others blame for their own problems Ethnicity, Culture, and Social Structure - Race is to biology as ethnicity is to culture - Ethnic group = comprises ppl whose perceived cultural markers are deemed significant - Cultural distinctions are often not the major source of differences in the behavior of various ethnic groups > ethnic values and other elements of ethnic culture have less of an effect on the way ppl behave than we commonly believe - Canadian research shows that culture in unimportant in determining the economic success of racial or ethnic groups Ethnic and Racial Stratification in Canada WASPs (white Anglo-Saxon Protestants) > ppl with the most power and privilege in the mid 20C …immigrants who joined later had less power and privilege John Porter called this time (^) an ethically and racially stratified “vertical mosaic” > thought the retention of ethnic and racial culture was a big problem in Canada bc it hampered the upward mobility of immigrants - but after WWII, ethnic and racial culture mattered less than the structure of mobility opportunities in determining economic success - in addition to the resources a person possesses, the structure of opportunities for economic advancement determines annual income and occupational and educational attainment Canadian-American Differences Multiculturalism = policy which emphasizes tolerance of ethnic and racial differences Melting pot = ideology of the U.S …values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences - surveys show that Canadian are less likely than Americans to favor the retention of distinct immigrant cultures but are somewhat more likely to accept ppl of different ethnicity as neighbors or co-workers basically racial and ethnic inequality is more deeply rooted in social structure than biology and culture ..biological and cultural aspects of the two are secondary to their sociological character when explaining inequality RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS: Labels, Identity and Symbolic Interaction Social contexts and in particular the nature of the relations with members of other racial ethnic groups, shape and continuously reshape a person’s racial and ethnicity identity The development of racial and ethnic labels, and ethnic and racial identities is a process of negotiation - outsiders may impose a new label - Example: Christopher Columbus and Native indigenous peoples Ethnic and Racial Labels: Imposition versus Choice Ppl cannot always freely chose their racial and ethnic identity > 2 examples (1) Soviet Union, (2) Canada The contrast btw Irish Canadians and African Canadians suggest that relations among racial and ethnic groups can take different forms State Imposition of Ethnicity in the Soviet Union: - developed strategies to promote national unity: o propaganda campaigns o created a system that allowed power and privilege to be shared among ethnic groups > internal passport system  allowed officials to apply strict ethnic quotas in recruiting ppl to institutions of higher education, professional and administrative positions and political posts  basically ethnicity became critically important in determining some of the most fundamental aspects of life Ethnic and Racial Choice in Canada: - Canadians are freer to choose their ethnic identity than citizens of the Soviet Union were - Example: Irish Canadians Symbolic ethnicity = is a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, of that of the old country, that is not usually incorporated in everyday behavior (a love for and a pride in a tradition that can be felt without having to be incorporated in everyday behavior) Racism = is the belief that a visible characteristic of a group, such as a skin color, indicates a group inferiority and justifies discrimination - where racism is common, racial identities are compulsory and at the forefront of self-identity THEORIES OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS Ecological Theory Robert Park > theory of how race and ethnic relations change over time - focuses on the struggle of territory - 5 stages in the process by which conflict among ethnic and racial groups emerges and is resolved: o 1. Invasion  one racial or ethnic group tries to move into the territory of another o 2. Resistance  established group tries to defend its territory and institutions against the intruding group o 3. Competition  2 groups begin to compete for limited resources o 4. Accommodation and Cooperation  2 groups work out an understanding of what they should segregate, divide and share o 5. Assimilation
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