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Chapter 11

Chapter 11Textbook Notes

by OneClass8068 , Fall 2010
8 Pages
111 Views
Fall 2010

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon
Chapter
11

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Chapter 11: Sexuality and Gender
Sex versus Gender
Intersexed infants are babies born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance in the womb
or some other cause
Gender Identity and Gender Role
Your sex depends on whether you were born with distinct male or female genitals program that released
either male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive system
Your gender is your sense of being male or female and your playing of masculine and feminine roles in
ways defined as appropriate by your culture and society
Gender identity is a persons identification with, or sense of belonging to, a particular sex-biologically,
psychologically and socially
A gender role is the set of behaviours associated with widely shared expectations about how males and
females are supposed to act
Heterosexuality is the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners
Theories of Gender
Essentialism is a school of thought that views gender differences as a reflection of biological differences
between women and men
Essentialism
Freud
He believed that differences in male and female anatomy account for the development of distinct masculine
and feminine gender roles
Female are jealous of their mother for having the fathers attention/son wants to be like the mother and wants
to cut of his genital, and female wants a male genital
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology
All human instinctively try to ensure that their genes are passed on to the future generation- men and
women have different goals to achieve this goal
Evolutionary scientist believes that women want more money, whereas men want to have casual sex with
women and treat them like objects
www.notesolution.com
A Critique of Essentialism form the conflict and Feminist Perspective
They have four main criticism against it:
1). Essentialists ignore the historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality
oThe variation deflates the idea that there are essential and universal behaviour differences between
women and men
1). In societies with low levels of gender inequality, the tendency decreases for women to
stress the good provided role in selecting male partners as does the tendency for men to
stress womens domestic skills
2). When women become corporate lawyers or police officers or take other jobs that
involve competition of threat, there production of the hormone testosterone is stimulated,
causing them to act more aggressively. Aggressiveness is partly role related
3). North America shows that women are developing traits that were traditionally
considered masculine. Women have become considerably more assertive, competitive,
independent and analytical in the past few decade
2). It tends to generalize from the average ignoring variations within gender groups
oEssentialists say men are more inherently more aggressive than women are, they make it seem as if
that is true of all men an all women aggressive between men and women can change an average
women can be more or less aggressive than a man (vice versa)
3). Little or no evidence directly supports the essentialists major claims
oSociobiologist and evolutionary psychologist have not identified any of the genes that, they claim,
cause male jealousy, female nurturance, the unequal division of labour between men and women
4) Essentials explanation for gender differences ignore the role of power
oConflict and feminist theorists concur that behavioural differences betwen women and men result
less from any essential differences between them than from men being in a position to impose
their interests over the interest of women
oFrom the conflict, feminist viewpoints, functionalism, sociobiology and evolutionary psychology
can themselves be seen as examples of the exercise of male power that is rationalization for male
domination and sexual aggressive
Social Construction and Symbolic Interactionism
Gender socialization
Women- Barbie was more than a doll to me-she was a way of living the- ideal women
www.notesolution.com
A movement to market more gender-neutral toys emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. however, it has now been
overtaken by the resumption of a strong tendency to market toys based on gender
oThey have toys that are for boys separated from the toys made available to girls
From birth girls and boys are treated differently by their parents from birth-girls are identified as delicate,
weak, beautiful, and cute-boys as strong, alert, and well-coordinated
Boys are more likely than girls are to be praised for assertiveness and girls are more likely than boys are to
be rewarded for compliance
oFathers usually want their sons to play football, baseball-aggressive play, whereas their daughters
are expected to take part in fair play and role playing
Parents, teachers, and other authority figures typically try to impose their ideas of appropriate gender
behaviour on children but children creatively interpret negotiate m resist and self-impose these ideas all the
time
Gender we might say is something that is done not just give
Gender Segregations and Interaction
Boundary crossing-involves boys playing stereotypically girls games and girls playing stereotypically boys
games
oMost common cross boundary involved girls who were skilled at specific sports that are central to
boys- such as soccer, baseball and basketball
Girls and boys were more likely to play together in a relaxed way in the relative privacy of their
neighbourhoods. In contrast, in the schoolyard where they were under the close scrutiny of their peers,
gender, segregation and antagonism were more evident
In Thorne`s research makes two important contributions to our understanding of gender socializations
oChildren are actively engaged in the process of constructing gender roles-they are not merely
passive recipients of adult demands
oAlthough schoolchildren tend to segregate themselves by gender, boundaries between boys and
girls are sometimes fluid and sometimes rigid, depending on social circumstances-children
gendered activities is by no means fixed
In a single sex school- girls typically experience faster cognitive development, higher occupational
attention, respect and encouragement in the classroom. They also develop more egalitarian attitudes toward
the role of women in society- more emphasis on academic importance and less on physical attractiveness
and sex biases
A gender ideology is a set of interrelated ideas about what constitutes appropriate masculine and feminine
roles and behaviours
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 11: Sexuality and Gender Sex versus Gender Intersexed infants are babies born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause Gender Identity and Gender Role Your sex depends on whether you were born with distinct male or female genitals program that released either male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive system Your gender is your sense of being male or female and your playing of masculine and feminine roles in ways defined as appropriate by your culture and society Gender identity is a persons identification with, or sense of belonging to, a particular sex-biologically, psychologically and socially A gender role is the set of behaviours associated with widely shared expectations about how males and females are supposed to act Heterosexuality is the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners Theories of Gender Essentialism is a school of thought that views gender differences as a reflection of biological differences between women and men Essentialism Freud He believed that differences in male and female anatomy account for the development of distinct masculine and feminine gender roles Female are jealous of their mother for having the fathers attentionson wants to be like the mother and wants to cut of his genital, and female wants a male genital Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology All human instinctively try to ensure that their genes are passed on to the future generation- men and women have different goals to achieve this goal Evolutionary scientist believes that women want more money, whereas men want to have casual sex with women and treat them like objects www.notesolution.com
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