•Made children less demanding.
•Orphans had higher death rate and were more likely to get
infected by the age of 9-12 months.
•Nursing home children – able to walk and talk by the age of 2/3
(fewer than 8 % of the orphans were able to do the same).
•Normal children would play with their genitals after their first
year, orphans started after their 4th
•Without childhood social development, human potential will
oMany people are able to reminisce on certain childhood memories that may
have had a large impact on their lives.
oAgents of socialization – families, school, peers, mass media, etc.
We are able to learn how to control our impulses, think of ourselves as
parts of different groups, believe in certain values, and maintain and
perform certain roles in society.
Theories of Childhood Socialization
As babies, we cry because we want something, and are satisfied with food, care, and
affection as the responses we get. This is the type of socialization that we attain
Social interactions allow infants to start developing a sense of self (independency).
Self – a set of ideas and attitudes about who you are as an independent being.
Id – part of self that requires immediate gratification.
oSelf-image is said to start when gratification is denied. (i.e. when a parent
doesn’t respond to their babies every cry in the middle of the night and the
baby gradually learns how to rely on themselves for being put back to sleep).
Superego – a part of one’s psychological self that contains cultural standards and
allows one to know what is accepted in society and what is not.