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Chapter 4

chapter 4 soca01

11 pages107 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon
Chapter
4

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Sociology Chapter 4; Socialization
Social Isolation and the Crystallization of Self-Identity
Children that are isolated from the human world tend to have many problems.
oThey rarely develop normally; cant make intimate relationships and can
usually only maintain basic language skills.
oSome are abused meaning their conditions may not only be due to social
factors.
oAbility to adapt to human world and learn their culture may be difficult and
is only a potential.
Socialization how one learns about their culture and how they discover themselves
as they interact with others; including the norms, values, and roles.
Role the behavior that is expected of someone that belongs to a particular position
in society.
Re Spitz.
oDiscovered the significance of socialization.
oCompared children brought up in an orphanage with those that were raised
in a prison nursing home.
Both provided good health care.
Mothers cared for the children in the home; only 6 nurses to 45
children in the orphanage.
Children from orphanage had less social experiences than those that
resided in the nursing home.
Children from the nursing home had the advantage of being
able to witness the people they were around (i.e. mothers,
doctors, nurses) doing different things (talking, cleaning,
serving, providing medical care).
Children from the orphanage were sheltered from viewing the
activities that were done in the orphanage.
Social deprivation.
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Made children less demanding.
Orphans had higher death rate and were more likely to get
infected by the age of 9-12 months.
Nursing home children able to walk and talk by the age of 2/3
(fewer than 8 % of the orphans were able to do the same).
Normal children would play with their genitals after their first
year, orphans started after their 4th
Without childhood social development, human potential will
remain underdeveloped.
oMany people are able to reminisce on certain childhood memories that may
have had a large impact on their lives.
oAgents of socialization families, school, peers, mass media, etc.
We are able to learn how to control our impulses, think of ourselves as
parts of different groups, believe in certain values, and maintain and
perform certain roles in society.
Theories of Childhood Socialization
Freud
As babies, we cry because we want something, and are satisfied with food, care, and
affection as the responses we get. This is the type of socialization that we attain
during infancy.
Social interactions allow infants to start developing a sense of self (independency).
Self a set of ideas and attitudes about who you are as an independent being.
Id part of self that requires immediate gratification.
oSelf-image is said to start when gratification is denied. (i.e. when a parent
doesnt respond to their babies every cry in the middle of the night and the
baby gradually learns how to rely on themselves for being put back to sleep).
Superego a part of ones psychological self that contains cultural standards and
allows one to know what is accepted in society and what is not.
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oOne is able to decipher the difference between appropriate behavior and good
morals, and a sense of right and wrong.
Ego the part of ones psychological mechanism determining the median between
conflicting needs and satisfying needs.
Unconscious part of the self that contains repressed memories that we are not
normally aware of.
3 conflicts seen with Freuds argument:
oConnections between childhood and adulthood socialization are more complex
than what he believed.
oGender bias in analysis of male and female is criticized.
oNegligence of socialization after childhood.
Coolies Symbolic Interactionism
looking-glass self
oPeople gesture and react to how someone else is acting towards them.
Allows us to imagine what were like in their eyes.
The feelings that we have about ourselves are very much impacted by
how we think others perceive us.
Negative self-concept
oCan result in low achievement due to many reasons, one of which could be
from racism.
To help us with our discrepancy, people may do things that will make them feel as if
theyre better.
oi.e. buying expensive things to make us look and feel better.
Mead
George Herbert Mead
I subjective and impulsive aspect of the self that is presented at birth.
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