Textbook Notes (362,932)
Canada (158,106)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 1

Textbook Chapter 1 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Chapter 2: How Sociologists Do Research Science and Experience OTTFFSSENT: Experience helps us perceive reality, including what patterns we see and whether we are able to see patterns at all- ex. Daughter asking her father a pattern questions experience filters perceptionsbiggest problem in sociological research o Filtering occurs in 4 stages Values often help decide which problems are worth investigating May reflect typical outlook of class, gender, race etc. Values lead sociologists to formulate and adopt favoured theories for interpreting and explaining those problems Sociologists interpretations are influenced by previous research, which they consult to find out what they already know about a subject The methods they use to gather data mould their perceptions Given that values, theories, previous research, and research methods filter our perceptions , you are right to concluded that we can never perceive society in a purely objective form o But can use techniques of data collection that minimize bias Can also publicly describe these filters which help eliminate obvious sources of bias Objectivity and subjectivity each play an important role in sociology o Although objectivity is about the reality check, subjectivity leads us to define which aspects of reality are worth checking on in the first place Scientific versus Unscientific Thinking In everyday life our biases easily influence our observations o often leads to incorrect conclusions about what we see Scientists and sociologists develop ways of collecting, observing, and thinking about evidence that minimize their chance of drawing biased conclusions 10 types of unscientific thinking: o 1). Knowledge based on tradition Ex). Chicken soup helps get rid of a cold- it worked for my grandparents and it works for me Science is required to separate valid from invalid knowledge o 2). Knowledge based on authority (ex. read from an authoritative paper) We often think something is true because we read it in an authoritative source or hear it from an expert but authoritative sources and experts can be wrong Scientists should always question authority to arrive at more valid knowledge o 3). Knowledge based on casual observation Uncertainty can be reduced by observing in a conscious and deliberate manner by recording observations Ex. The car that hit the cyclist was dark brown- I was going for a walk last night when I saw the accident o 4).Knowledge based on overgeneralization www.notesolution.com
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