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Canada (158,372)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 10&11&15

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Chapter 10-Race & Ethnicity Dr.Samuel George Morton studied skulls, developed theory that brain size reflected intelligence and that therefore white people were most intelligent  Claimed social inequality had biological basis  Errors such as being unable to distinguish white/black skills & Only tested 72 brains/didn’t tie in gender to skull size Prejudice; attitude that judges a person on his/her groups real/imagined characteristics Discrimination; unfair treatment of people because of group membership More black people are seen in athletics because that’s where they’re told they should go/Race cannot be boss for behaviour because genetics can’t show race Race; a social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, usually with profound effects on their lives. Scapegoat; a disadvantaged person or category of people whom others blame for their own problems Ethnic group; comprises people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant. Ethnic groups differ from one another in terms of language, religion, customs, values, ancestors and the like. Ethnic culture has less of an effect on behaviour than people believe. Social structural differences frequently underlie cultural differences. Economic Success is determined by resources such as education, literacy, urbanity and financial assets Immigrants face barriers to upward mobility, as one generation succeeds another, offspring diffuse more widely across the class structure. Canada’s multiculturalism; policy emphasizes tolerance of ethnic and racial differences Melting Pot; ideology of the United States values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences. Racial/ethnic inequality is more deeply rooted in social structure tan in biology and culture. Race and Ethnic Relations; Symbolic Integrationist Approach  Social context with members of other racial and ethnic groups shape and continuously reshape a person’s racial and ethnic identity.  Development of racial identities is a process of negotiation (insiders are label themselves as something and outsiders label them as something else which results into the crystallization of a new term)  Symbolic ethnicity; a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation or that of the old country, that is not usually incorporated in everyday behaviour.  Racism; is the belief that a visible characteristic of a group such as skin colour indicates group inferiority and justifies discrimination Conflict Theories of Race and Ethnicity  Internal Colonialism; involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same country. It prevents assimilation by segregating the subordinate group in terms of jobs, housing and social contacts.  Expulsion; the forcible removal of a population from a territory claimed by another population o Aboriginal Tribes (Beothuk People going extinct )  Genocide; the intentional extermination of an entire population  Conquest; the forcible capture of land and the economic and political domination of its inhabitants. o Quiet Revolution in Quebec; French desired a government that would supply a wide range of social services to the population, provide better infrastructure for economic development and help francophone entrepreneurs o Failed to resolve 4 Issues (Decline in population, Assimilation of immigrants in English culture, persistent ethnic stratification, continued use of English in private industry)  Slavery; ownership and control of people o Africans being captured and placed on slave ships and sent to North America  Theory of the Split Labour Market; holds that where low wage workers of one race and high wage workers of another race compete for the same jobs, high wage workers are likely to resent the presence of low age competitors and conflict is bound to result. Consequently, racist attitudes develop and are reinforced. o Asian immigration begun to provide cheap labour o Asian immigration viewed as threat to British values Advantages of Ethnicity; membership can have economic advantages/ can be politically useful and tends to persist because it provides emotional support Transnational Communities; communities whose boundaries extend between/among countries Pluralism; the retention of racial and ethnic culture combined with equal access to basic social resources Affirmative action/Employment equity; a policy that gives preference to members of minority groups if equally qualifies people are available for a position Chapter 11-Sex Vs Gender Intersexed infants; born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause. Sex; depends on whether you were born with distinct male or female genitals and a genetic program that released either male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive system. Gender; refers to the feelings, attitudes, desires and behaviours that are associated with a particular sexual category.  Sexuality; refers to a person’s capacity for erotic experiences and expressions  Gender Identity; refers to a person’s sense of belonging to a particular sexual category are supposed to act  Gender Role; refers to behaviour that conforms to widely shared expectations about how members of a particular sexual category are supposed to act. Heteronormativity; is the belief that sex is binary (one must be either male or female as conventionally understood ) and that sex ought to be perfectly aligned with gender (one sexuality’s , gender identity, and gender role ought to be either male or female as conventionally understood) Heterosexuality; is the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners Theories of Gender:  Essentialism; is a school of thought that views gender differences as a reflection of biological differences between women and men. o All humans try to that their genetics are passed through future generations; women are more invested in one child because she only carries a few eggs so she tries to find the best mate to fertilize her eggs/Men increase their chances by having multiple sexual partners and being jealous with all of them. o Reinforced by Functionalism; Women stay home raise children and manage household/ Men work in paid labour force o Critique;  Gender differences are not constants and they vary with social conditions  Women being more aggressive when taking up “masculine “ positions  Tends to generalize from the average ignoring variations within gender groups  Little or no evidence directly supports essentialists’ major claims  Explanations for gender differences ignore the role of power  Social Constructionism; views gender as constructed by people living in historically specific social structures and cultures o Gender Socialization; Barbies/ Transformers/Boys are taught to be assertive and Girls are taught to be compliance o Gender Segregation/Interaction  Children are actively engaged in the process of constructing gender roles.  School children segregate themselves by gender; boundaries between boys and girls are sometimes fluid and sometimes rigid depending on social circums
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