Chapter 10-Race & Ethnicity
Dr.Samuel George Morton studied skulls, developed theory that brain size reflected intelligence and
that therefore white people were most intelligent
Claimed social inequality had biological basis
Errors such as being unable to distinguish white/black skills & Only tested 72 brains/didn’t tie in
gender to skull size
Prejudice; attitude that judges a person on his/her groups real/imagined characteristics
Discrimination; unfair treatment of people because of group membership
More black people are seen in athletics because that’s where they’re told they should go/Race cannot be
boss for behaviour because genetics can’t show race
Race; a social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, usually
with profound effects on their lives.
Scapegoat; a disadvantaged person or category of people whom others blame for their own problems
Ethnic group; comprises people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant. Ethnic
groups differ from one another in terms of language, religion, customs, values, ancestors and the like.
Ethnic culture has less of an effect on behaviour than people believe. Social structural differences
frequently underlie cultural differences.
Economic Success is determined by resources such as education, literacy, urbanity and financial assets
Immigrants face barriers to upward mobility, as one generation succeeds another, offspring diffuse
more widely across the class structure.
Canada’s multiculturalism; policy emphasizes tolerance of ethnic and racial differences
Melting Pot; ideology of the United States values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences.
Racial/ethnic inequality is more deeply rooted in social structure tan in biology and culture.
Race and Ethnic Relations; Symbolic Integrationist Approach
Social context with members of other racial and ethnic groups shape and continuously reshape a
person’s racial and ethnic identity.
Development of racial identities is a process of negotiation (insiders are label themselves as
something and outsiders label them as something else which results into the crystallization of a
Symbolic ethnicity; a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation or that of
the old country, that is not usually incorporated in everyday behaviour. Racism; is the belief that a visible characteristic of a group such as skin colour indicates group
inferiority and justifies discrimination
Conflict Theories of Race and Ethnicity
Internal Colonialism; involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same
country. It prevents assimilation by segregating the subordinate group in terms of jobs, housing
and social contacts.
Expulsion; the forcible removal of a population from a territory claimed by another population
o Aboriginal Tribes (Beothuk People going extinct )
Genocide; the intentional extermination of an entire population
Conquest; the forcible capture of land and the economic and political domination of its
o Quiet Revolution in Quebec; French desired a government that would supply a wide
range of social services to the population, provide better infrastructure for economic
development and help francophone entrepreneurs
o Failed to resolve 4 Issues (Decline in population, Assimilation of immigrants in English
culture, persistent ethnic stratification, continued use of English in private industry)
Slavery; ownership and control of people
o Africans being captured and placed on slave ships and sent to North America
Theory of the Split Labour Market; holds that where low wage workers of one race and high
wage workers of another race compete for the same jobs, high wage workers are likely to resent
the presence of low age competitors and conflict is bound to result. Consequently, racist
attitudes develop and are reinforced.
o Asian immigration begun to provide cheap labour
o Asian immigration viewed as threat to British values
Advantages of Ethnicity; membership can have economic advantages/ can be politically useful and
tends to persist because it provides emotional support
Transnational Communities; communities whose boundaries extend between/among countries
Pluralism; the retention of racial and ethnic culture combined with equal access to basic social resources
Affirmative action/Employment equity; a policy that gives preference to members of minority groups if
equally qualifies people are available for a position
Chapter 11-Sex Vs Gender
Intersexed infants; born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance in the womb or
some other cause.
Sex; depends on whether you were born with distinct male or female genitals and a genetic program
that released either male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive
system. Gender; refers to the feelings, attitudes, desires and behaviours that are associated with a particular
Sexuality; refers to a person’s capacity for erotic experiences and expressions
Gender Identity; refers to a person’s sense of belonging to a particular sexual category are
supposed to act
Gender Role; refers to behaviour that conforms to widely shared expectations about how
members of a particular sexual category are supposed to act.
Heteronormativity; is the belief that sex is binary (one must be either male or female as conventionally
understood ) and that sex ought to be perfectly aligned with gender (one sexuality’s , gender identity,
and gender role ought to be either male or female as conventionally understood)
Heterosexuality; is the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners
Theories of Gender:
Essentialism; is a school of thought that views gender differences as a reflection of biological
differences between women and men.
o All humans try to that their genetics are passed through future generations; women are
more invested in one child because she only carries a few eggs so she tries to find the
best mate to fertilize her eggs/Men increase their chances by having multiple sexual
partners and being jealous with all of them.
o Reinforced by Functionalism; Women stay home raise children and manage household/
Men work in paid labour force
Gender differences are not constants and they vary with social conditions
Women being more aggressive when taking up “masculine “ positions
Tends to generalize from the average ignoring variations within gender groups
Little or no evidence directly supports essentialists’ major claims
Explanations for gender differences ignore the role of power
Social Constructionism; views gender as constructed by people living in historically specific
social structures and cultures
o Gender Socialization; Barbies/ Transformers/Boys are taught to be assertive and Girls
are taught to be compliance
o Gender Segregation/Interaction
Children are actively engaged in the process of constructing gender roles.
School children segregate themselves by gender; boundaries between boys and
girls are sometimes fluid and sometimes rigid depending on social