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Chapter 9

SOCA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Investment, International Inequality, Anti-Americanism


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Shelly Ungar
Chapter
9

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Chapter 9: Globalization, inequality and development
globalization is occurring as people and institutions across the planet become increasingly
aware of and dependent on one another
imperialism is the economic domination of one country by another.
from the view of anti-globalization activists, globalization puts the entire world under the con-
trol of powerful commercial interests. it contributes to the homogenization of the world and the
cultural domination of less powerful countries by more powerful countries
globalization in everyday life:
a global commodity chain is a world wide network of labour and production processes
whose end results is a finished commodity
the sources of globalization
technology: the introduction of commercial jets radically shortened the time necessary for
international travel and costs dropped dramatically after the 1950s. without modern tech-
nology it is hard to imagine how globalization would be possible
politics: advanced technology on its own could never bring about globalization. i.e. the
trades between countries is tied to politics
economics: is an important source of globalization. transnational corporations- also called
multinational or international corporations are the most important agents of globalization in
the world today
transnational corps depend increasingly on foreign labour and foreign production
increasingly emphasize skills and advances in design, technology and management
depend increasingly on world markets
depend increasingly on massive advertising campaigns
increasingly autonomous from national governments
governments often promote economic competition to help transnational corporations win
global markets
a world like the united states
the degree to which globalization is homogenizing the world and in particular making the
whole world look like the united states
McDonaldization coined by George Ritzer is defined as the process by which the principles
of the fast food restuarant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American so-
ciety as well as the rest of the world. [form of rationalization refers to the spread of the prin-
ciples of fast food restuarants efficiency, predictability and calculability to all spheres of life]
McDonaldization has come to stand for the global spread of values associated with the
united states and its business culture
glocalization is the simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life and the strength-
ening of some local differences under the impact of globalization
regionalization is the division of the world into different and often competing economic, po-
litical and cultural areas
the argument is that the institutional and cultural integration of countries often falls short of
covering the whole world
world trade is unevenly distributed across the planet and it is not dominated by just one
country; there is the Asian bloc dominated by japan and china, the north american bloc
dominanted by the united states and the european bloc dominated by germany
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these three trade blocs contain just over 1/5th of the worlds countries but account for more
than 3/4 of the world economic activity as measured by gross domestic product
regionalization in the growth of the european union, they coordinate economic, political,
military, social and cultural policies
Globalization and its discontents: anti-globalization and anti-americanism
Benjamin Barber argued that globalization was generating an anti-globalization reaction
which he called jihad
jihad represents an Islamic fundamentalist reaction to globalization. the most spectacular
devastating manifestation of fundamentalist Islamic jihad = 9/11
Islamic fundamentalism is the most far-reaching and violent of many reactions against
globalization throughout the world
1994 world trade organization to encourage and referee global commerce resulted in 40
000 union workers etc protesting in seattle
arab springs and the occupy movement were widely identifies as rebellions caused partly
by globalization. the occupy movement sought to publicize and protest growing inequality.
since 1970, multinational corporations had been shutting down north american factories
and relocation their operations in low wage countries, resulting in bigger profits for share-
holders and salaries for executives but fewer good jobs for north american workers
some occupy movement protesters were inspired by the rebellion against authoritarian
regimes that originated in Tunisia and spread and came to be the Arab spring.
The history of globalization
Martin Albrow argues that the global age is only a few decades old
dates it from the spread of global awareness and skepticism about the benefits of modern-
ization
the nation-state is still a major centre of power in the world
most foreign trade occurs between advanced industrial countries, and within distinct re-
gional groups of advanced industrial countries
many developing countries are poorly integrated in the global economy
cultural differences remain substantial across the planet
Anthony Giddens argues that globalization is the result of industrialization and moderniza-
tion which picked up pace in the late nineteenth century
the extent of international trade and capital flow in the late twentieth century only restored
the level achieved before WW1
WW1 and the great depression undermined the globalization of the late 19th and early 20th
century
they incited racism, protectionism and military build up and led to nazi and communist dic-
tatorships that culminated in WW2
international trade and investment plummeted between 1914-1945
Archaeological remains show that long-distance trade began 5000 yrs ago. people have
been migrating across continents and even oceans for thousands of years
colonialism is the direct political control of one country by another
Levels and trends in global inequality
the richest 1% of the worlds population (about 70million people) earn as much as the bot-
tom 66 % (about 4.6 billion people)
Modernization theory: a functionalist approach
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