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Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

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Chapter 9: Globalization, Inequality, and Development THE CREATION OF A GLOBAL VILLAGE The Triumphs and Tragedies of Globalization - inequality between rich and poor countries remains staggering - in some respects, it is increasing - arguably, rather than spreading the wealth, globalized and industries and technologies may be turning the world into a more unequal place - many people also oppose globalization because it may be hurting local cultures and the natural environment - some anti-globalization activists even suggest that globalization is a form of imperialism - imperialism - The economic domination of one country by another. THE SOURCES AND CONTOURS OF GLOBALIZATION Globalization in Everyday Life - global commodity chain - A worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity. The Sources of Globalization Technology - technological progress has made it possible to move things and information over long distances quickly and inexpensively Politics Economics - transnational corporations – also called multinational or international corporations – are the most important agents of globalization in the world today - transnational corporations - Large businesses that rely increasingly on foreign labour and foreign production; skills and advances in design, technology, and management; world markets; and massive advertising campaigns. They are increasingly autonomous from national governments. - they are different from traditional corporations in five ways: 1. - traditional corporations rely on domestic labour and domestic production - transnational corporations depend increasingly on foreign labour and foreign production 2. - traditional corporations extract natural resources or manufacture industrial goods - transnational corporations increasingly emphasize skills and advances in design, technology, and management 3. - traditional corporations sell to domestic markets - transnational corporations depend increasingly on world markets 4. - traditional corporations rely on established marketing and sales outlets - transnational corporations depend increasingly on massive advertising campaigns 5. - traditional corporations work with or under national governments - transnational corporations are increasingly autonomous from national governments A World Like the United States? - one common shorthand expression for the homogenizing effects of globalization is McDonaldization - McDonalization - A form of rationalization. It refers to the spread of the principles of fast-food restaurants – efficiency, predictability, and calculability – to all spheres of life. - some analysts find fault with the view that globalization is making the world a more homogeneous place based on North American values - they argue that people always interpret globalizing force in terms of local conditions and traditions - globalization - The simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life and the strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization. - those who see globalization merely as homogenization also ignore the regionalization of the world - regionalization - The division of the world into different and often competing economic, political, and cultural areas. - the argument here is that the institutional and cultural integration of countries often falls far short of covering the whole world The History of Globalization - we regard the establishment of colonies and the growth of capitalism as th
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