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Sociology A02 notes - Ch9,13,19,20,21.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

SOCIOLOGY (SOCA02) FINAL EXAM NOTES Chapter 9 – Globalization, Inequality, & Development Pros of Globalization • International telecommunication has become easy & inexpensive • World’s population increased, # of tourists increased • International trade & investment increase • International organizations & agreements are global • # of internet hosts increased Cons of Globalization • Inequality b/w rich & poor country remains; some say globalized industries & technologies may be turning the world into a more unequal place • Globalization may be hurting local cultures & the natural environment • A form of imperialism? (Imperialism: economic domination of one country by another) Globalization in Everyday Life Global Commodity Chain: worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity • e.g. Manufacturing Nike shoes in low wage countries where they spend low labour costs in countries like Mexico, and other developing economies Sources of Globalization • Technology - made it possible to move things & info over long distances quickly & inexpensively • Politics - e.g. contrast between North Korea & South Korea; South Korean gov. has greater political, economic, and cultural integration with the outside world, allowing it to produce and export advanced technology like Samsung & Hyundai whereas North Korea remains isolated • Economics • Transnational corporations: large businesses that rely increasingly on foreign labour & production. Most important agents of globalization! (e.g. World Bank, International Monetary Fund) • Transnational corporations differ from Traditional corporations because.. • Transnational corporations depend on foreign labour & production, not domestic labour/production • Transnational corporations emphasize skills & advances in design, technology & management, not natural resources/manufacture of industrial goods • Transnational corporations depend on world markets, not domestic markets. • Transnational corporations depend on massive advertising campaigns • Transnational corporations are autonomous from national gov. McDonaldization: George Ritzer coined this term as a form of rationalization; the spread of principles used in fast-food restaurants (efficiency, predictability, and calculability) to all spheres of life. Glocalization: simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life & strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization. (e.g. McDonalds in different countries offering foods that match trends & local needs) Regionalization: division of the world into different and often competing economic, political, and cultural areas. (e.g. World trade blocs, Asian, North American, and European) Globalization & Its Discontents: Anti-globalization & Anti-Americanism • Benjamin Barber argued that globalization (“McWorld”) was generating an anti-globalization reaction, called jihad. (Jihad: struggle/striving) • E.g. al-Qaeda network sough to roll back forces of globalization by attacking what they thought symbolized the global reach of American capitalism • Islamic fundamentalism is most violent/far-reaching reactions to globalization • Also, WTO meeting to encourage global commerce that caused an anti- globalization movement – property damage & threats History of Globalization • Sociologist Martin Albrow argues that “global age” is only a few decades old – however, not as recent as he says it to be since national borders still remain, developing countries are still poorly integrated • Stronger case: world was highly globalized 100 years ago • Sociologist Roland Robertson said that globalization is as old as civilization itself and is the cause of modernization – archaeological remains show that long distant trade began 5000 years ago! When globalization began has no answer, depends on what we want globalization to mean. Globalization is thought of as a 500-year-old phenomenon as colonialism began with Columbus’s voyage 500 years ago. Development and Underdevelopment • John Lie studied poverty and visited the Philippines; he assumed that people in North America with large land & advanced technology would be more efficient and better off, however the most productive were farmers that owned small plots of land – had little inequality & enjoyed low birth rates – had the incentive to work hard Levels and Trends in Global Inequality • emergence of many middle class people in countries caused income inequality to fall; however, comparing country averages is inaccurate – ignores the fact that poor people live in rich countries and rich people live in poor countries. Therefore, it is accurate to examine income inequality among individuals • most poor people are women Modernization Theory: A Functionalist Approach Modernization Theory: economic underdevelopment results from poor countries lacking Western attributes – including Western values, business practices, capital, and stable governments • citizens of poor societies lack sufficient capital to invest • lack rational Western-style business techniques of marketing, sales, etc. • lack stable Western-style governments that could provide a stable framework for investment • lack Western mentality – values that stress the need for savings, investment, etc. Dependency Theory: A Conflict Approach Dependency theory: economic underdevelopment as the result of exploitative relations b/w rich & poor countries • global inequality should not only focus on poor countries, but should focus on the relationship b/w rich & poor countries • Around 1500s, worlds most powerful countries colonized most of the rest of the world, leaving them locked into poverty and prevented them from industrializing • What kept these countries from being poor: Substantial foreign investment – positive for rich countries, negative for poor because poor countries is only used to extract raw materials, create low wage jobs, etc. Support for authoritarian governments – rich countries continued exploitation of poor countries Mounting debt – poor countries struggled to create transportation infrastructures, build education systems, and safe water by borrowing money from Western banks/government Core, Periphery, Semiperiphery • Immanual Wallerstein argues the creation of an integrated “world system” comprised of the following: • Core capitalist countries: countries that are major sources of capital & technology in the world (e.g. USA) • Peripheral capitalist countries: former colonies that are poor & are major sources of raw materials & cheap labour • Semiperipheral capitalist countries: former colonies that are making considerable headway in their attempts to industrialize (e.g. South Korea) Differences between Peripheral & Semiperipheral • Type of Colonialism • Geopolitical Position • State Policy • Social Structure **Canada is a Semiperipheral Country – type of colonialism: “white settler colonialism”, geopolitical position: highly favourable to economic development, state policy: protect & stimulate growth of Canadian industry, social structure: fewer positive effects on economic development, French-English conflict drew attention away from development policy** Neoliberal Versus Democratic Globalization Neoliberal Globalization: policy that promotes private control of industry; minimal government interference in running the economy; the removal of taxes, tariffs, and restrictive regulations that discourage the international buying & selling of goods & services; and the encouragement of foreign investment • belief that poor countries would do well if they had successful habits like rich countries • Neoliberalism was not a successful development strategy in early stages of industrialization; until the country is well on their way with industrialization, national industries can compete and begin neoliberal globalization Foreign Aid, Debt Cancellation, & Tariff Reduction • UN urges the world’s 22 richest countries to contribute 0.7% of GDP to development aid; only 5 countries reached that goal. • Even though USA is the world’s richest country, their foreign aid doesn’t meet UN guidelines and is not effective in helping the developing world – this is because foreign aid is accompanied by high admin costs • Strict oversight is required to ensure that foreign aid is not wasted and actually helpful (reduce cost of staffs that work in organizations, build partnerships with local org., etc.) • Debt cancellation; world’s richest countries & bank should simply write off the debt owed to them by developing countries in recognition of historical injustices – since these debts prevent them from focusing on building up economic infrastructure • Lowering tariffs by rich countries; allows developing countries to export goods that could earn them money for investment in agriculture, industry, and infrastructure Democratic Globalization • help spread democracy throughout the developing world • lowers inequality and promotes economic growth • difficult for elite groups to misuse their power • encourage broad political participation Chapter 13 – Work & the Economy The Promise of History & Work • when offices are computerized; office workers have a changed view on their job experience – smiles into frowns, sociability into isolation, etc. • work automation & standardization emerge as degrading & inhuman processes through these worker’s eyes • Bill Gates argues that computers reduce work hours and make goods & services cheaper, allows us to enjoy our leisure time more Economic Sectors & Revolutions Economy: institution that organizes the production, distribution, & exchange of goods & services divided into three sectors • Primary Sector: farming, fishing, logging, mining • Secondary Sector: raw materials into finished goods • Tertiary Sector: services are bought & sold History of Economy: • The Agricultural Revolution: Nomadic tribes > simple hand tool > plowing > animals attached to plow = increased productivity (Productivity: the amount produced for every hour worked) • The Industrial Revolution: Markets: social relations that regulate the exchange of goods and services – technology greatly increased ability for producers to supply markets (demand & supply) • The Postindustrial Revolution: increased productivity = increased service- sector jobs The Division of Hierarchy of Labour Division of Labour: specialization of work tasks. The more specialized the work tasks in a society, the greater the division of labour. • Work relations became more hierarchical Good Versus Bad Jobs • Good jobs offer secure employment, opportunities for promotion, and other significant benefits. In a bad job, you can easily be fired, receive few benefits, and you are unlikely to get promoted The Deskilling Thesis • Harry Braverman argued that owners organize work to maximize profits • The increased division of labour has 3 main consequences: • replace workers with machinery • employers can replaced skilled workers with less expensive, unskilled workers • employers can control workers more directly since less worker discretion & skill is needed to complete each task • Deskilling: process by which work tasks are broken into simple routines requiring little training to preform; machinery replaces labour whenever possible to manage control over workers • Henry Ford introduced the ASSEMBLY LINE (Fordism: mass production, assembly-line work) • Frederick W. Taylor developed pricinples of scientific management (system for improving productivity. Taylor trained employees to eliminate unnecessary actions, a.k.a. Taylorism) • Shoshana Zuboff analyzed office workers & their change of view when offices were computerized. She was right when she mentioned that the computer did eliminate many jobs & routinize others. Part-Time Work • doubled between 1976-2000 • 19.4% of Canadian labour force working fewer than 30hrs a week • Not a serious problem since: a) some part-time jobs are good jobs & b) some people want to work part-time & can afford it – e.g. family responsibilities & offers flexibility • Downfall of part-time jobs: lack of power, degradation (e.g. supply teacher) A Critique of the Deskilling Thesis • focuses on simplification of previously complex jobs, but only focuses on the bottom of the occupational hierarchy • skilled jobs were identified as those requiring high levels of conceptual autonomy and complexity - shows that service sector jobs require more skill than goods producing sector • although technological improvements kill of entire job categories, they also create new industries with many good jobs • computers tend to increase number and quality of good jobs and reduce the # of bad jobs • little evidence suggests that it has degraded work overall - but it is causing the income gap to grow between skilled workers who use information technology The Social Relations of Work • misleading to think that it takes less skill to produce goods/services • actually requires more skill because of the complexity of good/services we produce now • rise of managerial class & manufacturing era - where managers have real decision-making power - net result of this is a new middle class & greater power on decisions Labour Market Segmentation • identified by David Gordon where 1) initial proletarianization - working class replaced craft workers in small workshops 2) labour homogenization - mechanization & deskilling 3) labour market segmentation - division of market, where large buisness organizations emerge, resulting in a segmented labour market that are hard to switch from one labour market to the other due to social barriers 1) Primary Labour Market: high skilled, well-educated workers employed in large corporations, secure job, earnings are high 2) Secondary Labour Market: unskilled and lack higher education - mainly women, members of ethnic minority groups, & recent immigrants Worker Resistance & Management Response • Braverman portrays workers as passive victims of management control; where workers often resist managers telling them what to do • Human relations school of management: Frederick W. Taylor advocated that less authoritarian leadership encouraged careful seclection & training of people & greater attention to human needs & employee job satisfaction - Not only did higher wages make a difference, but more decision-making authority allowed people to have a loyal & productive workforce • 1) Reforms that give workers more authority - Quality of work life movement involves small groups of a dozen workers managing and co-operating to improve communication b/w workers & managers - results in high productivity and workers satisfaction • 2) Reforms that allow workers to help formulate overall buisness strategy give workers more authority than quality circles. Codetermination: German system of worker participation that allows workers to help formulate a buisness strategy - reciewing management policies on issues, etc. Unions and Professional Ogranizations • Unions: organizations of workers that seek to defend and promote their member's interests • key role in increasing worker participation in industrial decision making • helps develop systems of labour recruitment, training, and promotion - sometimes called internal labour markets (labour market shelters): control pay rates, promotions within corporations (e.g. recruitment of new workers limited to entry level postions - therefore, intake of new workers is controlled) • Professional roles - specify credeentials needed to enter professions and thus, maintain a cap on the supply of new professionals - this reduces competition, ensures high demand for their services and keep their earnings high Barriers between Primary & Secondary Labour Markets 1) Few entry-level positions in primary labour market 2) Workers lack informal networks linking them to good job openings; especially hard for recent immigrants and refugees - lack "right connections" 3) Workers usually lack the required training and certification for jobs in primary labour market; get stuck in secondary labour market Time Crunch & Its Effects • leisure is on the decline, pace of work is more frantic because: • 1) advertising is pushing Canadians to consume goods/services at higher & higher levels - to satisfy these "needs" people need to work more • 2) most corporate executives think it is more profitable to push employees to work longer hours rather than hire new employees and train them • 3) most canadians are not in a position to demand reduced working hours The Problem of Markets • Free market: prices only determined by supply/demand • Regulated market: social forces limit the capacity of suppy/demand to determine prices • analysis suggest that the freer the market, the higher the social inequality since the secondary market can not entirely be free - this is why the Canadian govermnent have minimum wage to prevent price of unskilled labour to drop below a point where people are unable to make a living • Neoclassical economists suggest that if min. wage is eliminated, everyone will be better off - one difficulty with this theory is that resistance to operation of free markets increase as you move down the social hierarchy • Markets are only as free as the people are prepared to tolerate, and the degree of tolerance varies historically/based on culture Capitalism, Communism, & Democratic Socialism 1) Capitalism: dominant economic system • Private ownership of property - individuals and corporations own almost all the means of producing goods/services. Corporations: legal entities that can enter into contracts and own property • Competition to pursuit profit - producers compete to offer consumer goods/services at the lowest possible price 2) Communism: social & economic system • Public ownership of property - state owns all the means of producing goods/services, private coorportations do not exist, individuals are not free to buy/sell • Government planning - five-year state plans to establish production quotas, prices, and other aspects of economic activity (what is produced, what price, what quantity) 3) Democractic Socialism: "third way" between capitalism and socialism • public ownership of certain basic industries - the government owns certain basic industries entirely, public ownership is not high • substantial government intervention in the market - countries enjoy regular, free, multiparty elections - social services are more generous, workers earn more, work fewer hours, enjoy more leisure time The Corporation • Oligopoly: small number of gaint corporations control part of an economy - tend not to compete against one another - set prices at whatever is profitable for them • Conglomerates: large corporations that operate in several industries at the same time • Interlocking directorates: individual sits on the board of directors of two or more non-competing companies (e.g. board of directors of BCE includes the president of Petro, the chair of Royal Bank, etc.) - these enable corporations to exchange valuable info and form alliances for MUTUAL BENEFIT Globalization • corporate "downsizing" - middle managers fired, taxes high, big corporations couldnt make profit • globalization in less developed countries - imposes few pollution controls on operations, dangerous consequences for environment = urban slums, high unemployment, exploits of children/women Chapter 19 – Health & Medicine The Black Death  plague sweeping through countries, spread from fleas to rats to people due to people who lived close together and in unsanitary conditions  suggests that health is not just a medical issue – uneven distribution of health  Life expentancy: average age at death of the members of a population  Another issue with the Black Death: superstition/ignorance cannot cure the ill  Modern medicine is not always that good, has emphasis on high-tech cures rather than on preventive and environmental measures Health and Inequality Defining and Measuring Health  Measured by looking at negative rates of illness/death  1/100 people live to 100  life expectancy in rich countries increase at a steady rate of 2.5years/decade The Social Causes of Illness and Death 1) Human-Environmental Factors: how human activity shapes environments - For example, hazardous waste sites tend to be located where First Nations communities/poor people are, which contributes to lower levels of health) 2) Lifestyle Factors: smoking, alcohol, drug usage, poor diet, social isolation - tobacco use amounts for a fifth of all deaths - social isolation is a big problem in old people who retire, lose friends, etc. prone to depression 3) Factors related to public health & health care systems - Public health system: gov. run programs that ensure access to drinkable water, basic sewage & sanitation services, and inoculation against diseases - Health care system: nation’s clinics, hospitals, and other facilities for insuring health & treating illness Country of Residence - HIV/AIDS is 10 times more common in Africa than in North America - Prosperity of country increases health through biomedical advances – new medicines & tools & vaccines - More than a sixth of the world’s people do not have access to sanitary water supply - Positive relation between national wealth and good health - Infant Mortality: annual number of deaths before the age of one for every 1000 live births Class Inequalities & Health Care - people with low income die at a younger age than people with high income (Canada) - poverty is also associated with high rates of tobacco, and alcohol - WHY? 1) High stress and the inability to cope with it: - high stress levels from deprived and difficult living conditions - stress that is linked to physical/mental health problems - people in higher class structure can turn stress of by, for example, going on vacation - lower-class families endure crowding, poorer dwelling quality, & bad working conditions 2) Differences in the earliest stages of development that have lifelong consequences - deficiencies in nutrition during pregnancy 3) Lack of knowledge - less educated & less access to educated people 4) Unequal access to health care - Canadians that live in inferior medical services – fewer hospitals, health care centres 5) Environmental Exposure: - more likely to be exposed to environmental risks Racial Inequalities in Health Care - drug use is high among Aboriginals; many Inuit women smoke during pregnancy - health disparities due to economic differences among racial groups Gender Inequalities in Health Care: The Feminist Contribution - Gender Bias exists in medical research; tend to focus on men’s health issues and not women’s health issues - Women have been excluded from participating in major health studies - Women undergo fewer operations (kidney transplants, etc.) than men - Because women often live longer than men do, they experience a greater life time risk of functional disability with chronic illness. Women in less developed countries have high rates of mortality and morbidity (acute and chronic illnesses) – related to pregnancy complications - Women face higher risk than men do of poverty – divorce, widowhood – poverty then contributes to ill health Comparative Health Care from a Conflict Perspective - doesn’t mean that money always buys good health - higher level of inequality in a country = unhealthy country (e.g. USA has higher % of poor people, and average health is lower) - cost of health care in USA is also high, and lack a public health care system that covers the entire population The Canadian Health Care System - Socialized Medicine: government that 1) directly controls the financing and organization of health services, 2) directly pays providers, 3) guarantees equal access to health care, and 4) allows some private care for individuals who are willing to pay for their medical expenses - Canada does not have a 100% socialized medicine but government does not employ Canadian physicians – most are private care who submit claims to insurance plan for payment - PROBLEM: wait times are sometimes long Symbolic Interaction, Labelling, and the Medicalization of Deviance - Medicalization of Deviance: over time, medical definitions of terms that used to be “bad” (like a person prone to drinking) are becoming more prevalent and treated as medical issues - For example, a person prone to drinking is treated as an alcoholic & treated at the detoxification centre - More and more, what people define as “badness” are defined as “sickness” nowadays The Political Sociology of Mental Illness - American Psychiatric Association (APA) - The “condition” of homosexuality – where the APA decided that it is not a psychiatric disorder and deleted the entry in the DSM (book of disorders) - Political debate on sociology since:  DSM initially decided to eliminate the term “neurosis” unless the cause of the mental disorder can be proven experimentally – replaces neurosis with disorder  Urged APA to recognize posttraumatic stress disorder in its manual - More and more mental illnesses because: 1) Canadians have more stress/depression than ever before – increased demands of work & growing time crunch 2) # of mental disorders have inflated because powerful organizations demand it – possibly for the profit motive (more medical issues, more issues to be treated = more profit) 3) Cultural context stimulates inflation – many children diagnosed with ADD have no organic disorder at all, but were treated with drugs for it – could be because of deprived attention at home (tend to ignore social causes just to prescribe drugs) 4) Various professional organizations promote mental disorders – increases patient load and stature The Professionalization of Medicine - rise to dominance of scientific medicine because doctors were able to professionalize and restrict competition within the profession
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