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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Textbook Notes

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Ch9: Globalization, Inequality & Development The Creation of a Global Village Comparison of then *25 yrs ago+ and now → example of travelling to Europe The Triumphs & Tragedies of Globalization  Indicators of Globalization: o Growth of tourism (1980→ 3.5% travelled internationally, now 11.3%) o ↑ in # of international organizations & agreements o International telecommunication has become easy & inexpensive  ↑ in internet users, cheaper phone calls, ↑ in cellphones o ↑ in international trade & investment o # of globalization articles ↑ed 11-fold  Globalization: process by which formerly separate economies, states & cultures are tied together and ppl becoming ↑ingly aware of their growing interdependence o Has transformed & improved the way we live o Inequality b/w rich & poor countries remain, ↑ o May be hurting local cultures & natural environment o Anti-globalisations activists suggest globalization is a form of imperialism o Imperialism: the economic domination of 1 country by another  Graph → Canada most exposed to international tourism; India/China→ least Globalization Globalization in Everyday Life  Everything influences everything else in a globalized world (even price of tea in China) o Barbara Garson → traced a small amnt of money she invested in a bank in U.S.  Global commodity chain: a worldwide network of labour & production processes, whose end result is a finished commodity o Ex) tracing how athletic shoes binds consumers & producers in a GCC o Manufacturers closed their plants in high-wage countries & moved to developing countries o ↑ed international division of labour o Workers paid poorly, suffered beatings & harassment, while managers paid loaded $ o When someone buys Nike shoes, they insert themselves in a GCC The Causes/Sources of Globalization 1. Technology → ↓ in travel time, easier to send info quickly, inexpensively & instantly 2. Politics → contrast b/w South Korea & North Korea (remains isolated) 3. Economics → capitalist competition a major spur to international integration  Transnational corporations (multinational or international corp): most IMP agent of globaliz 1 Traditional Corporation vs. Transnational Corp Rely on domestic labour & productionRely on foreign labour & production 1 2 Extract Nat Res or manu industrial gEmphasize skills & advances in design, tech & mngmnt 3 Sell to domestic markets Depend on world markets Malak Patel | Chapter 9 4 Rely on established marketing & sales Depend heavily on massive advertising campaigns outlets Work w/ or under national gov’t Autonomous from national governments 5  Technological, political & economic factors work w/ eachother to globalize the world o Ex) Marlboro Cigarettes popularity A World Like the United States?  Consequence of globalization → degree to which globalization is homogenizing the world, making the whole world look like the unites states  McDonaldization [George Ritzer]: spread of the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more & more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world o Form of rationalization, application of most efficient means o b/c of McD, values of efficiency, calculability & predictability have spread to all areas o stands for global spread of values associated w/ U.S.  GDP of Canada = GDP of Texas; each American state GDP = GDP of some country  AGAINST claims about homogenizing effects of globalization: o Symbolic interactionists o Argue that ppl always interpret globalizing forces in terms of local conditions & traditions o Glob, in fact may sharpen some local differences o Glocalization: the simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life & the strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization  ex) McDonald’s serves different foods in different countries o Regionalization: the division of world into dfrnt & competic? economic, political & cultural areas  Trade is not evenly distributed around the planet  3 main trading blocs exist—Asian bloc (Japan), N.A. bloc (U.S.), Western European bloc (Germany)  Most world trade takes place within each of these blocs  Politically, regionalization in European Union  Most Western European countries now share same currency, the euro, & they coordinate economic, political, military, social & cultural policies  Another ex → expansion of Islam Discontents of Globalization: Anti-Globalization & Anti-Americanism  “jihad” means “striving” or “struggle” → anti-globalization reaction o Idea of holy war against those who harm Muslims o Islamic fundamentalist reaction to globalization → ex) Sept 11/2001  Another ex → Mexican peasants who rebelled against land given to commercial farmers to ↑ exports to U.S. & Canada  Protests @ WTO meetings  Thus, globalization is NOT a simple process! The History of Globalization 2  Martin Albrow → “global age” in only a few decades old *since 1980s] ( 25 yrs)  Anthony Giddens → argues that globalization is the result of industrialization & modernization o World
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