Textbook Notes (368,666)
Canada (162,055)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Textbook Notes

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Chapter 17: Education The Riot in St. Leonard  Recognized as a turning point in Quebec history  Bill 101: makes French the language of public administration o Children of immigrants will receive education is French  Allophones: children w/ neither English nor French backgrounds Schools:  Teach students a common culture that forms a framework for social life  Access to what type of schools is starting point for sorting children into adult jobs &social classes  Place where societies endow future generations w/ the key capacities of o Communication o Coordination o Economic productivity  2 tasks: 1.) homogenizing- by enforcing common standards o 2.) sorting  Mass Schooling: tied to industrialization & to maintaining a productive economy  More education ensures better treatment in the labour markets Mass Education: An Overview nd  Education system is 2 in importance [after family] as an agent of socialization  A century ago, most ppl never attended school  Elementary schools → primary schools  Highs schools → secondary schools  Universities → post-secondary institutions  More than half of 19yr olds in Canada were enrolled in either college or uni  Universal mass education: recent phenomenon, limited to wealthy countries Uniform Socialization  Creating systems of education that had sufficient resources to include all children  Religious training was never widely available  These forms of instruction were replaced by a centralized & rationalized system  Diversity among families gradually gave way to a common culture  In Canada, before there were separate school systems for Catholics & Protestants  Today, post secondary institution makes no distinction in admissions 1  Thus, students can now take higher education [edu in dffrnt country]  Effective mass education was achieved through laws that made attendance compulsory  94% in public schooling, 5% private schooling, 1% home schooling SocioNotes | Chapter 17 Rising Levels of Education  Amount of edu ppl receive has risen steadily, still rising  % of ppl with uni degree was 7 times higher in 2001 than in 1951.  Education is now popular, especially among parents  WHY? B/c education is perhaps the most visible option for improving employment opportunities  Barriers such as financial, motivational, & academic performance limit how far students can go  Educational Attainment: # of yrs of schooling completed for, or degrees earned  Educational Achievement: learning/skills, valuable knowledge that an individual acquires and it is what grades reflect  Attainment differs from achievement b/c whether an individual goes on to complete another yr of school involves selection o Selection reflects various influences  some drop out after admission  some fail to take additional courses o selection may turn purely on individual educational achievements  family background plays an imp role in rates of completion of advanced education Individual Advantages & Disadvantages  Greater edu is effective for securing more employment & higher earnings  As educational attainment ↑, earning prospect ↑, unemployment rate ↓ Rise of Mass Schooling Spread of Mass Schooling b/c of: 1. Development of Printing Press: a. books were expensive when scribed were the only source b. Printing press lead to fall in price, explosion in numbers! c. Cheap books fostered demand for schools to teach children the art of reading 2. Protestantism: a. education of priests was primary motivation for foundation of universities b. Ppl needed education to read the Bible 3. Spread of Democracy: a. Led to free education for all children, tax-supported schools rose 4. Industrialism: a. Education recognized as absolute necessity for creating an industrial economy b. Historians assess literacy by counting the rate at which ppl signed marriage registers with a name and not merely an X or another mark c. Germany had finest universities –known for research in the sciences 2 d. Other countries later copied German universities e. Universally acknowledged that 1 step to achieve productive economy is to create mass education system SocioNotes | Chapter 17 Mass Schooling & National Wealth  Investment in education is an imp step in achieving great national wealth  GDPpc connected with Average Years of Education for Children in that country o MEDIAN GDPpc increases with # of yrs of edu children are expected to receive o GDPpc DOES NOT increases with # of yrs of edu children are expected to receive  Edu helps to generate wealth. But not the ONLY factor  Edu is not only a source of wealth, it is also a product of wealth  Educational accumulation is greatly facilitated by EARLIER accumulation of wealth The Functions of Education Unintended Functions  Schools don’t merely carry out training  Schools encourage the development of a separate youth culture that conflicts with parents values  Minority groups see school as alienating, b/c they are low on peer rankings  Educational institutions bring potential mates together→ serving as a “marriage market”  Assortative mating: choosing mates who are similar to oneself on various criteria  Schools perform useful custodial service o By keeping children under close surveillance, freeing parent s to work  Unis/colleges by keeping young ppl out of full time paid labor force restrict job competition and support wage levels  Schools encourage critical, independent thinking  “schools of dissent”: challenge authoritarian regimes and promote social change The Logic of Industrialism  Logic of industrialism: specification by functionalist theorists of: o Requirements that social institutions would have to satisfy before industrialism could be achieved o An education system massive enough to train a large # of ppl to a common cultural standards and rich enough to provide specialized scientific/technical training for the chosen few  Schools had to expand in 2 directions: o Devoting more time to non-specialist training and still further time to specialist training o This reduced role of families in shaping children for specific careers  Edu system simultaneously intensifies homogenization and training o Homogenizing intensified when minimum level of edu required across pop rises 3 o Sorting intensified large numbers enrol in longer programs of specialized training SocioNotes | Chapter 17 Cultural Homogeneity, Solidarity, and Nationalism  Exposure to common culture promotes solidarity [Durkheim]  Durkheim: human beings are torn b/w egoistic needs and moral impulses; edu institutions must endure that moral side predominates o By installing a sense of discipline & morality in children, schools make society cohesive  Manifest [intended] functions of school: o Try to teach the young to view their nation with pride, respect law of land o Also transmit knowledge & culture from generation to generation, fostering common cultural identity  Nationalism: [Ernest Gellner]: sentiments emphasizing the view that humanity is divided into a limited number of populations defined by common culture, territory, & continuity within a kin grp Cultural Solidarity  Imagined Communities: sentiments of solidarity and identification with ppl who share particular cultural attributes  Education is legally required---some see edu as a burden imposed by power of the state Sorting into Classes & Hierarchies: Conflict Perspectives  Functionalist & Conflict Theorists agree that edu prelude inequalities in work o They differ on whether mass edu results in class assignments that are just  Meritocr
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