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Chapter 14

SOCA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Totalitarianism, Social Inequality, Materialism

Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Chapter 14: Politics [pgs 430-437]
The Future of Democracy
Two Cheers for Russian Democracy
Seminars held in Moscow to acquaint some leading sociologists in the Soviet Union with
Western sociology
Russia will never be a capitalism and democracy
o b/c freedom means the powerful are free to compete unfairly against the powerless,
creating social inequality
o nearly 40% of pop live below poverty line
out of 38 countries, 97% viewed democracy as ideal form of gov’t
Russian citizens equated democracy with distress, not freedom
In Russia, voting levels are low, minority grps treated cruelly, different thn western democracies
The Three Waves of Democracy
P 431 graphDraw!
1st WAVE: began when more than half the white adult males in U.S. became eligible to vote
33 countries enjoyed at least minimally democratic institutions
A democratic reversal occurred b/w 1922 and 1942
During that period, fascist, communist, and militaristic movements caused 2/3rds of the world’s
democracies to fall under authoritarian or totalitarian rule
2nd WAVE: b/w 1943 and 1962
T he Allied Victory in WWII returned democracy to many of the defeated powers, including West
Germany and Japan
Military dictatorship replaced many democracies
1/3rd of democracies were authoritarian regimes by 1970s.
3rd WAVE: began in 1974 w/ the overthrow of military dictatorship in Portugal & Greece
Soviet Communism collapsed
By 1995, 117 of 191 countries were democratic
o = 61% of world’s countries, containing 55% of world pop
o 3rd wave less dramatic
Formal democracies: countries that hold regular, competitive elections
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