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Canada (158,032)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 2

SOCA02- SCP; Chapter 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

SOCA02- SCP; Chapter 2 - relativism: belief that there is no ultimate truth or single, unchangeable truth about anything- all things are either true or false relative to particular standards - an indicator has high face validity when it seems to fit with our mental image of the concept it is supposed to measure; ex. years of schooling  educational attainment - most researchers are concerned primarily about respondent biases:  acquiescence bias: checking off answers to questions without thinking about them  social desirability bias: trying to answer questions the way they think the researcher wants them to - sociologists do not use experiments often, due to inability to manipulate many variables for practical or ethical reasons and degree of external validity, though logic of experiment still dominates major techniques of research - surveys are most widely used technique - pseudo-surveys/questionnaires  any set of questions administered to a group of people  not all meet the standards of a survey, including design of questions, goal of collecting data rather than manipulating people (cover for sale pitch), method of administration, and how sample is chosen - issues in survey question design:  double-barrelled questions- having 2 or more referents and can be answered honestly in more than one way  asking threatening questions such as about income; can be made better by asking about it in hypothetical terms or as one of a series of questions leading up to it  order of questions- positioning threatening questions near the end to reduce chances of respondents' end of participation - random sampling
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