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Canada (161,886)
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SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 14

SOCA02- SCP; Chapter 14.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

SOCA02- SCP; Chapter 14 - in late 19 and early 20 centuries, early advocates of public schooling undertook mission to convince public and members of influential groups of schooling - by mid 20 century, more and larger schools were required to accommodate growing educational demands  credentials became more important and people were more likely to extend their schooling beyond high school - elementary and secondary education is under jurisdiction of provinces - adult and post-secondary education is controlled, operated, or funded by a variety of governments (federal, provincial, and First Nations) and by private sources - lifelong learning  new/knowledge-based economy  people are expected to develop different ways of learning and transferring knowledge - developed countries can expect on average >12 yrs of formal schooling while developing countries are below high school completion - Education For All was adopted by 164 governments seeking to achieve targets by 2015:  comprehensive early childhood care and education  free, compulsory, high quality primary education attainable by all children  learning and life-skills programs for all young people  adult literacy especially for women, and basic and continuing education for all adults  gender equality in basic and continuing education  ensuring that all people achieve established learning outcomes - however UNESCO believes that above goals are not attainable due to poverty, socio- economic inequalities, health issues, war, gender discrimination - structural functionalism  examines education in terms of its contributions to social order/stability  specialization  educational institutions try to ensure that successive generations are able to make transition to labour force  Parsons identified schools' 2 central functions: selection (allocating individuals with appropriate skills into necessary jobs and social positions) and socialization (providing people with aptitudes and knowledge required for adult roles and specific jobs)  schools cultivate characteristics for work and public life by reinforcing norms of independence, achievement, universalism, and specificity (focus on selected individual characteristics as opposed to person as a whole)  technical functionalism links educational growth to increasing technical sophistication of jobs and knowledge production  functionalist analysis assumes a broad social consensus about what should be taught in schools and how educational institutions should be organized  functional analysis tends to portray deviation from these ideals as abnormalities or problems that warrant minor reforms rather than as challenges to education system as a whole  presents education as a meritocratic ideal  human capital theory emphasizes education's role as a critical tool for developing human capacities to create and apply new knowledge - symbolic interactionism and microsociology  focuses on meaning and possibilities that social actors bring to social settings  societies and institutions are fluid  ethnomethodology- classrooms resemble on another not so much because of given model of schooling but more likely because people act in accordance with images about what is expected of them  combo of interpretive sociology with insights into practical social activity with other approaches concerned with breaking down barriers between micro and macrosociology - conflict theory  emphasize schools' role as mechanism that select and prepare people for different positions in labour markets and institutional life  educational credentials to preserve privileges of occupations  Bowles and
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