Chapter 5 Sociology
Women laugh more than men
Biggest discrepancy in laughing occurs when the speaker is a woman and the listener is a man
Men are more likely than women to engage in long monologues and interrupt when others are
Social interaction involves communication among people acting and reacting to one another,
either face to face or via computer.
Status- social position. People with higher status get more laughs while people with lower status
Social statuses are just one of three building blocks that structure all social interactions. The
others are roles and norms.
A role is a set of expected behaviours. A norm is a generally accepted way of doing things
Many people viewed laughter an emotion to be caused involuntarily be an external stimulus but
feminists were the first to realize emotion is voluntary
When people manage their emotions they usually follow certain cultural scripts. Individuals
usually know the culturally designated emotional response to a particular external stimulus and
try to respond appropriately
Arlie Russel Hochschild coined term emotion management which involves people obeying
“feeling rules” and responding appropriately to the situations in which they find themselves
People have expectations about what they should feel and how they should feel it, and with
whom they should share those feelings.
Emotion labour is emotion management that many people do as part of their job and for which
they are paid
Women do more emotion labour because they are better socialized to undertake caring and
Emotions in Historical Perspective
Feeling rules take different forms under different social conditions. E.g. As emotional investment
in children increased, grief response to children’s deaths intensified and lasted longer. OR when
manners began to change because of the emergence of modern political state. Good manners
defined who had power and were created to signify the distribution of power in the family by
age and gender.
Conflict Theories of Social Interaction
Maintaining interaction requires that both parties’ need for attention is met Conflict theory focuses on macrolevel structures and shows how major patterns of inequality in
society product social stability in some circumstances and social change in others.
Derber noted that North Americans try to turn conversations toward themselves. His analysis is
influenced by conflict theory, which holds that social interaction involves competition over
valued resources. Such resources include attention, approval, prestige, information, money etc.
According to conflict theorists, competitive interaction involves people seeking to gain the
most-socially, emotionally, and economically-while paying the least
Variants of the Conflict Theory of Interaction
The idea that social interaction involves trade in attention and other valued resources is the
central insight of exchange theory, one variant of the conflict theory of interaction. Exchange
theorists argue that all social relationships involve a lit