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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Sociology.docx

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Chapter 5 Sociology  Women laugh more than men  Biggest discrepancy in laughing occurs when the speaker is a woman and the listener is a man  Men are more likely than women to engage in long monologues and interrupt when others are talking  Social interaction involves communication among people acting and reacting to one another, either face to face or via computer.  Status- social position. People with higher status get more laughs while people with lower status laugh more  Social statuses are just one of three building blocks that structure all social interactions. The others are roles and norms.  A role is a set of expected behaviours. A norm is a generally accepted way of doing things Emotion Management  Many people viewed laughter an emotion to be caused involuntarily be an external stimulus but feminists were the first to realize emotion is voluntary  When people manage their emotions they usually follow certain cultural scripts. Individuals usually know the culturally designated emotional response to a particular external stimulus and try to respond appropriately  Arlie Russel Hochschild coined term emotion management which involves people obeying “feeling rules” and responding appropriately to the situations in which they find themselves  People have expectations about what they should feel and how they should feel it, and with whom they should share those feelings. Emotion Labour  Emotion labour is emotion management that many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid  Women do more emotion labour because they are better socialized to undertake caring and nurturing roles Emotions in Historical Perspective  Feeling rules take different forms under different social conditions. E.g. As emotional investment in children increased, grief response to children’s deaths intensified and lasted longer. OR when manners began to change because of the emergence of modern political state. Good manners defined who had power and were created to signify the distribution of power in the family by age and gender. Conflict Theories of Social Interaction  Maintaining interaction requires that both parties’ need for attention is met  Conflict theory focuses on macrolevel structures and shows how major patterns of inequality in society product social stability in some circumstances and social change in others.  Derber noted that North Americans try to turn conversations toward themselves. His analysis is influenced by conflict theory, which holds that social interaction involves competition over valued resources. Such resources include attention, approval, prestige, information, money etc.  According to conflict theorists, competitive interaction involves people seeking to gain the most-socially, emotionally, and economically-while paying the least Variants of the Conflict Theory of Interaction  The idea that social interaction involves trade in attention and other valued resources is the central insight of exchange theory, one variant of the conflict theory of interaction. Exchange theorists argue that all social relationships involve a lit
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