Chapter 17 sociology
Schools two main tasks: homogenizing and sorting
Create homogeneity out of diversity by instructing all students in uniform curriculum.
Sorting students into paths that terminate in different social classes.
Homogeneity achieved by enforcing common standards that serves as a cultural common
Sorting favors students who develop the greatest facility in the common culture
Education turns students into citizens by giving them a common outlook but it also
reproduces the class structure and the structure of global inequality.
2564 with a college or university degree is higher in Canada than in any other country at
around 1900, Canada and the untied states were the first countries to approach universal
education participation by young people
the literate and numerate few were typically trained in religious institutions … think
protestant reformation to have created schools.
Catholics and protestant pressure to cover the same material
Levels of education rising in Canada
1951 fewer than 1 in 50 Canadians had completed a university degree
today 1in 5 have completed a university degree
Educational achievement learning of valuable skills and knowledge, this is shown in the
Educational attainment # of years of schooling successfully completed or, for higher
learning, degrees or certificates earned
Individual advantages and disadvantages
Educational attainment helps get people jobs and earn more. Lowers rate of
unemployment were associated with more education
People that did not finish high school had an unemployment rate that is three times as
high as did people with a university degree
Mass schooling and national wealth
Mass education was recognized as an absolute necessity for creating an industrial
Education is both a cause and effect of national wealth
Function of education
result is that school encourage that development of a separate youth culture that
can conflict with parents values
students who are low on such peer ranking find the youth culture of school
role conflict is alienation or disconnection from others Assortative mating choosing a mate who is similar to oneself on various ranking
Meritocracy who learn poorly get inferior jobs; rank is allocated by tests of
Childean born into a lower ranked families but if child perform well in school
they can expect upward mobility. And viseversa, higher ranked familes, but
preformed poorly in school they can expect to downward moblitiy
Economic barriers to higher education
Few academic programs admit only qualified people and supply all who do
qualify with funding to meet all expenses.
Social class origin strongly affects how much formal education people attain.
Bottom quarter of the income distribution attended post secondary institutions
Credentialism and professionalization
Children from richer families are likely to obtain education becomes a tool for
social exclusionsetting up boundaries so that certain social opportunities and
positions are not open to all.
Credential inflation means needs more certifications and degress to qualify for
a job then before . example plane mechanics. Now needs to keep up with the
information and need more degrees then before.
Professionalizationoccurs to the degree that certain levels and types of
schooling are established as criteria for gaining access to an occupation. If too
many people enter into the same occupation, the cost of the profession will lower.
Ex. So many PhD’s which lowers there pay but a medical doctor makes more
because there is not a lot of them.
Bourdieu wrote extensively about the role of education in maintaining social
inequality. Analogy with theories of marx. Bourdieu argued that education was
central to creation and transmission of cultural capital learning and skills that
ensured superior positions in productivity (learning more increases the chance of
securing a better job)
Pedagogic violence bourdieu’s