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Chapter 9

Jobs and Globalization - Brym chapter 9

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Sheldon Ungar

Jobs & Globalization, Nation State 1 Wednesday, March 7, 2012 INTRODUCTION The Creation of a Global Village The Triumphs and Tragedies of Globalization ∙ Some anti-globalization activists suggest the globalization is a form of imperialism, the economic domination of one country by another. (Pg. 250) ∙ More over, it contributes to the homogenization of the world, the cultural domination of less powerful, by more powerful countries. (Pg. 250) GLOBALIZATION Globalization In Everyday Life ∙ When we buy a commodity, we often tap into a global commodity chain, a worldwide “network of labour and production process, whose end result is a finished commodity.” (Pg. 251) The Sources of Globalization ∙ Although most social scientists disagree on the exact causes of globalization, most stress the importance of technology, politics, and economics. (Pg. 252) Technology ∙ Technological progress has made it possible to move things and information over long distances quickly and inexpensively. (Pg. 252) Politics ∙ Politics is important in determining the level of globalization. (Pg. 252) Economics ∙ Capitalist competition has been a major spur to international integration. (Pg. 252) ∙ Transnational corporations are large businesses that rely increasingly on a foreign labour and foreign production; skills and advances in design, technology and management; world markets; and massive advertising campaigns. They are increasingly autonomous from national governments. (Pg. 252) ∙ They are different from traditional corporations in five ways: 1. Traditional corporations rely on domestic labour and domestic production. Transnational corporations depend increasingly on foreign labour and foreign production. 2. Traditional corporations extract natural resources or manufacture industrial goods. Transnational corporations increasingly emphasize skills and advances in design, technology, and management. 3. Traditional corporations sell to domestic markets. Transnational corporations depend increasingly on world markets. 4. Traditional corporations rely on established marketing and sales outlets. Transnational corporations depend increasingly on massive advertising campaigns. 5. Traditional corporations work with or under national governments. Transnational corporations are increasingly autonomous from national governments. ∙ As the case of Philip Morris illustrates, economics and politics work hand in hand to globalize the world. (Pg. 253) AWorld Like the Unites States? ∙ One common shorthand expression for the homogenizing effects of globalization is McDonaldization. (Pg. 254) Week 8  Globalization, Inequality and Development  Chapter 9 o McDonaldization is a form of rationalization. It refers to the spread of the principles of fast food restaurants, such as efficiency, predictability, and calculability, to all spheres of life. (Pg. 254) ∙ The idea of McDonaldization extends Weber’s concept of rationalization, the application of the most efficient means to achieve given ends. (Pg. 254) ∙ Glocalization is the simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life and the strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization. (Pg. 255) ∙ Those who see globalization merely as homogenization also ignore regionalization of the world, the division of the world into different and often competing economic, political, and cultural areas. (Pg. 255) Globalization and Its Discontents:Anti-globalization andAnti-Americanism The History of Globalization ∙ Roland Robertson, note that globalization is as old as civilization itself and is in fact the cause of modernization rather than the other way around. (Pg. 257) ∙ Colonialism involves the control of developing societies by more developed, powerful societies. (Pg. 257) DEVELOPMENTAND UNDER DEVELOPMENT Levels and Trends in Global Inequality Theories of Development and Underdevelopment Modernization Theory:AFunctionalistApproach ∙ Two main sociological theories claim to explain global inequality. (Pg. 261) ∙ The first, modernization theory, is a variant of functionalism. o Modernization theory holds that economic underdevelopment results from poor countries lacking Western attributes. These attributes include Western capital; lack rationale, Western-style business techniques; they lack stable, Western-style governments; finally they lack a Western mentality. Dependency theory: AConflictApproach ∙ Argue that a theory of global inequality should not focus on internal characteristics of poor countries themselves. Instead, it ought focus on patterns of
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