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Chapter

Study Guide Pt.1


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Mc Kinon

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Chapter 9 Globalization, Inequality, and Development
-People are become more aware of and relying on one another. This is called globalization.
-Globalization creates a world that is more homogeneous and more localized and generates its
own opposition.
-Became highly significant like the grown of capitalism and world exploration.
-Since industrialization, global inequality has also increased.
-Global inequality stresses how deficiencies lead to a lack of economic growth, and also the
history of social relations enriched some nations at the expense of others.
-Some non-Western countries have successfully industrialized.
-Have both benefits and disadvantages.
Introduction
The Triumphs and Tragedies of Globalization
-Take example of comparing a travel to Europe now and 25 years ago.
-We are able to easily obtain cash and purchase things in Europe.
-Back then; English was not a commonly spoken language as it was harder to communicate.
-Globalization has improved the way we live.
-However, not everyone is happy with globalization as it creates inequality between the rich and
the poor.
-Some think that globalization is a form of imperialism, the economic domination of one
country by another.
Globalization
Globalization in Everyday Life
-Everyone influences each other in a globalize economy.
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an economic downturn in Thailand.
-Global commodity chain is a worldwide network of labour and production processes whose
end result is a finished commodity.
-Nike shows the inequality of the economy. Pricing their prices high while using sweatshops to
manufacture their products.
-When someone buys a pair of Nike shoes, they contribute to the global commodity chain.
The Sources of Globalization
-These include technology, politics, and economics.
Technology
-Allow the transportation of information and other things over long distances quickly and
inexpensively.
-Allow us to reach people around the globe through telephone, fax, e-mail, etc.
Politics
-South Korea has allied with Canada since the Korean War, hence why South Korea is better
known to Canadians than North Korea.
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-However, due to the political system and communist economic system in North Korea, it
remains isolated from the rest of the world.
Economics
-Transnational corporations are large business that rely increasingly on foreign labour and
foreign production; skills and advances in design, technology, and management; world markets;
and massive advertising campaigns. They are increasingly autonomous from national
governments.
A World Like the United States?
-McDonaldization is a form of rationalization. Refers to the spread of the principles of fast-food
restaurants, such as efficiency, predictability, and calculability, to all spheres of life.
-Defined by George Ritzer.
-However, some view that globalization is making the world a more homogeneous place based
on North American values.
-Glocalization described the simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life and the
strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization.
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-Regionalization is the division of the world into different and often competing economic,
political, and cultural areas.
-World trade is spread evenly around the world, an Asian bloc, North American bloc, and
European bloc.
-Although globalization brings us together in the world, it can also generate much criticism and
opposition.
Globalization and Its Discontents: Anti-globalization and Anti-Americanism
-Islamic fundamentalism is the most far-reaching and violent of many reactions against
globalization.
-The Mexican peasants staged an armed rebellion against the Mexican government.
-Colonialism involves the control of developing societies by more developed, powerful
societies.
-A positive way to look at globalization is that it shows the growing gap between the rich and the
poor.
Development and Underdevelopment
Theories of Development and Underdevelopment
Modernization Theory: A Functionalist Approach
-The modernization theory says that global inequality results from various dysfunctional
characteristics of poor societies themselves.
-Poor cities lack capital to invest in Western-style agriculture and industry.
-Also, they lack the government and mentality that stress the values needed for high
achievement, savings, innovation, education, etc.
-To help this, Western businesses need to invest in poor countries and increase trade between the
rich and poor.
Dependency Theory: A Conflict Approach
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-Dependency theory views economic underdevelopment as the result of exploitative relations
between rich and poor countries.
- Substantial foreign investment: Investment by multinational corporations has
positive effects for rich countries and negative consequences for poor countries.
- Support for authoritarian governments: Give support to local authoritarian
governments. Gunboat diplomacy is when Western governments send troops and
military advisors.
- Mounting debts: Poor countries have to borrow money from Western banks and
governments, leading to the interest to grow every year.
Effects of Foreign Investment
-Modern theorists want more foreign investment in poor countries and freer trade because they
believe it will promote economic growth and general well being.
-Dependency theorists disagree as they think foreign investment drains wealth out of poor
countries.
-Therefore, they want poor countries to go against the rich and throw up barriers to free trade and
investment and find its own path to economic growth.
-Some researchers studied the effects of free trade and foreign investment and came to 2
conclusions.
-1, in 1990 and 1980, international trade and foreign investment led to economic growth.
-2, openness to international trade and foreign investment led to an increase in inequality
-In conclusion, countries have different social structures and histories as they may adopt
economic policies that influence the effects of international trade and foreign investment.
-Factors that may affect how a country responds to international trade and foreign investment
include history, structure, and policy factors.
Core, Periphery, and Semiperiphery
-Immanuel Wallerstein said that capitalist development resulted in the creation of an integrated
world system comprising the 3 tiers.
1. Core capitalist countries: Include the United States, Japan, and Germany. They are
major sources of capital and technology.
2. Peripheral capitalist countries: Include Guatemala and Angola. They are major
sources of raw material and cheap labour.
3. Semiperipheral capitalist countries: Include South Korea, Taiwan, and Israel. They
attempt to become prosperous.
-Semiperipheral countries differ from peripheral countries in 4 ways:
1. Type of colonialism: South Korea and Taiwan became colonies of Japan until 1945.
Japanese built up economies of their colonies as they established transportation
network and communication systems. This led to an advantage for South Korea and
Taiwan compared to Ghana, for example.
2. Geopolitical position: United States feared that South Korea and Taiwan might fall
to the communist, therefore, provided aid to both countries in 1960. Also, Israel
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