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Canada (162,407)
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SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 11

chapter 11 sexuality and gender

4 Pages

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Sheldon Ungar

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LECTURE 2CHAPTER 11 SEXUALITY AND GENDERSex versus Gender Intersexed infants are babies with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other causeWe are biologically determined to be male or femaleBeing male or female is not only determined by biology but also determineda persons gender comprises of feelings attitudes and behaviours associated with being male or femalegender identitypersons identification with a particular sexwhen you behave according to expectations you develop a gender roleBabies develop a sense of them being a boy or a girl at the age of one At the age of around 23 they have a full blown sense of their gender identityResearchers believe that if gender reassignments occur before the age of 18 months it will usually be successful but once social learning of the gender takes hold it is difficult to undo itHeterosexualitypreference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partnersTheories of Gender 2 perspectives of gender differences in human behavior o Essentialismgender differences are a reflection of naturally evolved dispositions views gender as a part of a persons nature or part of biological makeup o Social constructionismgender differences are a reflection of the different social positions occupied by men and women views gender as constructed by social structure and culture Essentialism o Freud believed that differences in male and female anatomy account for development of masculine and feminine gender roles o According to Freud children begin to pay attention to their genitals around age 3 o Boys develop sexual fantasy with mother and resent the father He is scared the father will castrate him so he represses his feelings and identifies with this father o Girls develop an inferiority realizing they lack a penis rejecting their mother and developing a sexual desire for their father o Other sociologists and evolutionary psychologists say that all humans try to ensure that their genes are passed on to future generations but both sexes have different ways of achieving this goal Functionalism and Essentialism o Functionalists reinforce essentialists viewpoint claiming that traditional gender roles help integrate society o Larger society promotes gender role conformity
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