Textbook Notes (384,735)
CA (170,232)
UTSC (19,414)
Sociology (1,064)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Mc Kinon (31)
Chapter 2

Textbook Notes-Chapter 2 Detailed

by OneClass3888 , Winter 2011
4 Pages
74 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Mc Kinon
Chapter
2

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
SOCA02-Textbook Sociologists ResearchJan-31-2011
SCIENCE AND EXPERIENCE
Experience filters perception is the biggest problem for sociological research.
We can never perceive society in a pure or objective form.
The filtering occurs in 4 stages
Our values help us decide which problems are worth investigating.
Our values lead us to formulate and adopt favored theories for explaining problems.
We are influenced by previous research.
The methods we use to gather data mold our perceptions.
We can use technology to interpret / gather data to provide a less biased result.
Scientific versus Unscientific Thinking
In science, seeing is believing. In everyday life, believing is seeing.
10 ways of seeing things unscientifically:
tradition (chicken soup gets rid of a cold, masturbation will blind you)
authority (newspaper bullshit)
casual observation (we're all careless observers)
Overgeneralization (my dad worked hard and became rich, so can I!)
Selective observation (I'm right because I can't think of any contrary cases)
Qualifications (exceptions to the rule)
Illogical reasoning
Ego-defense (I just can't be wrong)
Premature closure of inquiry (The matter is settled once and for all!)
Mystification (There must be supernatural forces at work here)
CONDUCTING RESEARCH
The Research Cycle
1. formulate a research question (must be stated so it can be answered by systematically collecting
and analyzing sociological data)
2. review the existing research literature.
3. Selecting a research method
4. Collecting data
5. Analyzing the data
6. Publish the results
Ethical Considerations
The right to safety, ppl must have the right to decide whether they can be studied and in what
way.
The right to privacy.
The right to confidentiality.
The right to informed consent.
THE MAIN METHODS OF SOCIOLOGY
Field Methods: From detached Observation to “Going Native
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
SOCA02-Textbook Sociologists Research Jan-31-2011 SCIENCE AND EXPERIENCE • Experience filters perception is the biggest problem for sociological research. We can never perceive society in a pure or objective form. The filtering occurs in 4 stages Our values help us decide which problems are worth investigating. Our values lead us to formulate and adopt favored theories for explaining problems. We are influenced by previous research. The methods we use to gather data mold our perceptions. We can use technology to interpret / gather data to provide a less biased result. Scientific versus Unscientific Thinking • In science, seeing is believing. In everyday life, believing is seeing. • 10 ways of seeing things unscientifically: tradition (chicken soup gets rid of a cold, masturbation will blind you) authority (newspaper bullshit) casual observation (we're all careless observers) Overgeneralization (my dad worked hard and became rich, so can I!) Selective observation (I'm right because I can't think of any contrary cases) Qualifications (exceptions to the rule) Illogical reasoning Ego-defense (I just can't be wrong) Premature closure of inquiry (The matter is settled once and for all!) Mystification (There must be supernatural forces at work here) CONDUCTING RESEARCH The Research Cycle 1. formulate a research question (must be stated so it can be answered by systematically collecting and analyzing sociological data) 2. review the existing research literature. 3. Selecting a research method 4. Collecting data 5. Analyzing the data 6. Publish the results Ethical Considerations • The right to safety, ppl must have the right to decide whether they can be studied and in what way. • The right to privacy. • The right to confidentiality. • The right to informed consent. THE MAIN METHODS OF SOCIOLOGY Field Methods: From detached Observation to “Going Native” www.notesolution.com SOCA02-Textbook Sociologists Research Jan-31-2011 • Field research: is research based on the observation of people in their natural settings. Detached observation: an approach involving classifying and counting the behavior of interest according to predetermined scheme. Hawthorne effect: The presence of the researcher may itself affect the behavior of the people being observed. Ethnographic: researcher spends months or even years living with a people to learn their languages, values, mannerisms – their culture – and develop and intimate understanding of their behavior. Participant Observation • involves carefully observing people's face-to-face interactions and participating in their lives over a long period of time, thus achieving a deep and sympathetic understanding of what motivates them to act in the way they do. • Subjectivity: going “native”, observing the subject from the subject's world. Can go too far because the observers cannot see their subjects' cultures with much objectivity. • Objectivity: observing the subject from the outside. Can go too far because the observers cannot fully understand the way their subjects experience the world, thus observers often rely on their own experiences to impute meaning to a social setting. • It's hard for participant-observers to gain access to the groups they want to study they must gain their trust • Race, gender, class and age differences sometimes make it difficult. • Participant Observation begins with Exploratory Research: in which an attempt to describe, understand, and develop a theory about a social phenomenon in the absence of, or with little, previous research on the subject. • Hypotheses: are unverified but testable statements about the relationship between two or more variables. • Grounded theory: is an explanation of a phenomenon based not on mere speculation but on the controlled scrutiny of objects. Methodological Problems Measurement • Variables: are concepts that can take on more than one value. • Operationalization: is the procedure by which researchers establish criteria for assigning values to variables. should “class” be measured by determining people's annual income? Or their accumulated wealth, or years of formal education? Reliability, Validity, Generalizability, and Causality • Reliability: is the degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results. • Validity: is the degree to which a measure actually measures what it is intended to measure. All valid measures are reliable, but not all reliable measures are valid. External Validity: allows the research findings to generalize to the general population. Internal Validity: the degree that we are successful in eliminating confounding variables within the study itself. www.notesolution.com SOCA02-Textbook Sociologists Research Jan-31-2011 • Generalizability: exists when research findings apply beyond the specific case examined. Biggest problems faced by participant-observation studies. • Causality: involves the analysis of causes and their effects. Information on how widely or narrowl
More Less
Unlock Document


Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit