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SOCA02H3 (310)

Study Guide: Lecture 1-4

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

SOCA02 Lecture 1 Chapter 2: Research Methods in Sociology :J,@^ - ^ -_^ -[@_K ~D>@,@;D^@K-^~^ -[@_7 @D>;D^@K-^~^ -_ Ultimate Questions J are beyond capability of science to answer, science is empirical (facts) 1) ooZ}o]oo]o7}]Z]}ZZ]o}o]^KL]L2o_o]M 2) Is there an unmoved mover? J Aristotle, the creator is the first cause of big bang 3) What happens to us when we die? Stephen Hawkins 4) Why is there something instead of nothing? 5) Do we have a soul and is that soul immortal? (b) EXPERIENCE AND BIAS - Single biggest problem for sociological research is that experience filters our perceptions, how we see the world - Conservative J functionalism - Liberal J conflict theory 2. TWO TYPES OF SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES How Research Filters Perceptions: Values -> Theories -> Previous research -> Methods --^Zo]_ There are four stages to filtering in sociological research: ^2KL9ZZ ZZ[oZZoZK ]Z] Z}oms are worth investigating Stage Two: Values lead researchers to formulate and adopt favored theories for interpreting and explaining those problems ^[email protected] ZZ[]L]}LZ]LoL ]}ZZ Z Stage Four: Methods used to gZK}oZ ZZ[ ]}LZ (a) DESCRIPTIVE J describe, tells you what exists - ex: descriptive statistic studies, trend studies, (b) EXPLANATORY J tells you why something exists Explanatory Studies 1) The children of upper income parents are more likely to attend university 2) ^DL]Z_K}o]lo} }KK]Z] ]ZZL^o]Z_ 3) Government funding for healthcare causes infant mortality rates to decline 4) Does the death penalty cause murder rates to decline 5) Does the economy influence rates of common crime (c) SOCIAL ACCOUNTING J studies are used to develop policies by legislators - trend analysis, census - baby boomers 3. THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH (a) CONCEPTS Concepts and Sub-concepts: Alienation 1) Powerlessness (General) 2) Meaninglessness (sub) 3) Self-estrangement 4) Social isolation Social Class (general) 1) Education (sub) 2) Occupation (sub) www.notesolution.com 3) 4) Income (sub) Norm Status (b) VARIABLES J varying concepts, able to manipulate concept - ex: age, gender, - Operationalization J procedure by which researchers establish criteria for assigning values to variables (c) HYPOTHESES J tentative, are there to be disproved (d) EMPIRICAL GENERALIZATIONS J hypothesis confirmed several times, found to be true multiple times, however are still tentative but have more confidence in them than in hypothesis (e) THEORY J macro event, gives you a deepermore comprehensive understanding (i) GOOD THEORY GI^^9Z_O9>[email protected] (ii) GOOD THEORY GIV^,KZ^ K,9Z,-^I_EXPLANATION J account for other findings David Reisman - The lonely crowd J weak social solidarity Instrumentalism J interact with people because you need them for something (buysell) By-stander effect J do nothing 4. THE ANALYSIS OF VARIABLES (a) INDEPENDENT VARIABLES (ex: marital status) (b) DEPENDENT VARIABLES (ex: teen pregnancy) (c) A RESEARCH EXAMPLE: DIVORCE & TEEN PREGNANCY Martial Status: Four-cell tableContingency Table Married Divorced Teen Pregnancy 25% 75% Yes 75% 25% No (d) STATISTICAL CORRELATION: (i) POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP (ii) NEGATIVE CORRELATION (iii) NO RELATIONSHIP (iv) SPURIOUS CORRELATION J third variable problem, not really related Ex: research reveals that more people die in hospitals than at home, do hospitals cause death? Must control for confounding factors, different populations in hospitals and homes Ex: Warming & CO2 Hypothesis: higher CO2 = higher global temperatures From 1970-1995 time period is spurious, other factors other than CO2 are responsible for temperature change (ex: sun spots) (v) CAUSALITY & ASSOCIATION 5. SURVEY RESEARCH (a) RELEVANT VARIABLES (i) INTERVAL DATA J number that represents actual reality, 1 to 1 correspondence (ii) ORDINAL DATA J relationship bw number and what you are measuring is arbitrary Does beauty = success? I and II are both quantitative www.notesolution.com
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