MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY
The history of existing society is the history of class struggles.
In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere complicated arrangement
of society into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank.
The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has
established new classes, new conditions of oppression, and new forms of struggle in
place of the old ones.
The epoch of bourgeoisie has simplified the class antagonisms.
Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into
two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.
From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest town
and from these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.
The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up ground for the rising
The feudal system of industry now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the
new markets. The manufacturing system took its place.
The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class;
division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of
division of labour in each single workshop.
The markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising.
Steam and machine revolutionized industrial production.
Modern industry has established the world-market.
oThis market has given an immense development to commerce, navigation, to
communication by land. This development has reacted on the extension of
industry; and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways
extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its