Man i festo of t he com mun ist party. The history of existing society is the history of class struggles. In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank. The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has established new classes, new conditions of oppression, and new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. The epoch of bourgeoisie has simplified the class antagonisms. society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: bourgeoisie and proletariat. From the serfs of the middle ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest town and from these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed. The discovery of america, the rounding of the cape, opened up ground for the rising bourgeoisie.