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SOCA02H3 (310)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Chapter 11 SexualityGender Sex versus GenderIntersexed babies born w ambiguous genitals bc of a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause Gender Identity and Gender RoleSex depends on whether you were born w distinct male or female genitals and a genetic program that released male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive systemSociologists distinguish biological sex from sociological gender Gender sense of being male or femaleyour playing of masculine and feminine roles in ways defined as appropriate by your culture and societyo Also comprises feelings attitudesbehaviours associated w being male or femaleGender identity a persons identification w or sense of belonging to a particular sexbiologically psychologically and sociallyGender role set of behaviours associated w widely shared expectations about how malesfemales are supposed to actBabies develop a full sense of gender identity at age 2 or 3Social learning of gender begins very early in lifeHeterosexuality the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners Theories of GenderEssentialism views gender as part of the nature or essence of a persons biological makeup o see gender differences as a reflection of biological differences bw wm o Ie Functionalist theorySocial constructionism views gender as constructed by social structure and culture o see gender differences as a reflection of the different social positions occupied by wm o Ieconflict feminist symbolic interactionist theoriesEssentialism FreudBelieved that dfrnces in malefemale anatomy account for the development of distinct gender rolesChildren around the age of 3 begin to pay attention to their genitalsBoys grown closer toward his mother girls toward her fatherGirls develop a feminine personality when she realizes she lacks a penis forms penis envySince women are never able to resolve their penis envy they are naturally dependent on men 1 Sociobiology and Evolutionary PsychologyAll humans try to ensure that their genes are passed on to future generationsMenwomen develop different strategies to achieve this goalWomen only produces smallof eggs men haschances that his genes will be passed onMalak PatelChapter 11
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