Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7+14+16+22 Textbook Notes -> All you need for the Final

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

SOCA02 Textbook Notes Chapters 7,14,16,22 1 CHAPTER 7 CANADIAN ATTITUDES TOWARD CRIME There has been much concern with crim in Canada concerned to be top 3 social issues people in Canada think the punishments are too soft Definition of deviance and crime change over time and differ over place. Nazis were law-abiding citizens Jesus, Marin Luther King, Nelson Mandela were all considered to be criminals back then but now are considered to be heroes THE SOCIAL DEFINITION OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME Deviance involves breaking a norm, it is not merely a departure from the statistical average, but rather a violation of an accepted rule of behavior. Man using womens washroom Informal Punishment involves a mild sanction that s imposed during face-to-face interaction, not by the judical system. Raising eye-brow, stigmatization, gossip etc... Stigmatization is when people are negatively evaluated because of a marker that distinguishes them from others and that is labelled as socially unacceptable. Formal Punishment takes place when judical system penalizes someone for breaking a law. 3 Dimensions of Deviance and Crime: Severity of the social response (homicide vs wearing a nose ring) Perceived harmfulness of the deviant or criminal act (sexual assualts vs coke) Degree of public agreement (murder vs smoking weed) 4 Types of Deviance and Crime: Social Diversions are minor acts of deviance that are generally perceived as relatively harmless and that evoke, at most, a mild societal reaction, such as amusement or disdain. Social Deviations are non criminal departures from norms that are nonetheless subject to official control. Some members of the public regard them as somewhat harmful while other members of the public do not. www.notesolution.comSOCA02 Textbook Notes Chapters 7,14,16,22 2 Conflict Crimesare illegal acts that many people consider harmful to society. However, other people think they are not very harmful. They are punishable by the states. (having long th beared in Russia in the late 17 century can be viewed as a crime LOL) Consensus Crimes are illegal acts that nearly all people agree are bad in themselves and harm society greatly. The state inflicts severe punishment for consensus crimes. Power and the Social Construction of Crime and Deviance Social constructionism argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturally. It emphasizes how some people are in a position to create norms and pass laws that define others as deviant or criminals. Crimes against Women The law has been biased against women because women are generally less powerful than men in all social institutions. Thus they rarely have a say in making laws. Up until recently, date rape was rarely considered a sexual assault, but now its alot better because womens position in society has improved over the past 4 decades. White-Collar Crime White-Collar Crime refers to illegal acts commited by a respectable, high-status person in the course of his or her work. Include false advertising, tax evasion, fraud, unfair labor practices, copyright infringement etc... They hurt employers and employees or public while bringing benefit to corporations or corporate insiders. Street Crimes include arson, break and enter, assault, and other illegal acts disproportionately commited by people from lower class. White-collar crimes are underdetected, underprosecuted, and underconvicted because it is the crime of the powerful and well-to-do. The social construction of crimes against women has changed over the past 4 decades partly because women have become more powerful. In contrast, the social construction of white-colloar crime has changed very little since 1970 because upper classes are no less powerful now than they were then. Crime Rates Information on crime collected by the police is the main source of information on crime in Canada. (Uniform Crime Reporting Survey developed by Stats Canada and the www.notesolution.com
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