collective conscience: comprises the common sentiments and values that people share as a result of living together. profane: refers to the secular, everyday world. sacred: refers to the religious, transcendent world. rituals: durkheim"s usage public practices designed to connect people to the sacred. Ma rx, conflict, and religion as a prop for i nequality. conflict theorists have lodged 2 main criticisms against durkheim"s theory of religion: i t overemphasizes religion"s role in maintaining social cohesion. In reality, religion often incites social conflict: when religion does increase social cohesion, it often reinforces social inequality. marx stressed how religion often tranquilizes the under privileged into accepting their lot in life. marx religion diminishes class conflict: he called religion the opium of the people". civil religion: set of quasi-religious beliefs and practices that bind a population together and justify its way of life: robert bellah.