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Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

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Julian Tanner

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Chapter 5- The Structural Transformation of Schooling: Accommodation, Competition & Stratification
-Before 2nd World War higher education was considered a waste of time and resources
-“Higher education for all” ethos and a “revolution of expectations” across North America
-3 ongoing transformations of schooling structures and 3 important arguments
1) schools have accommodated more and more types of students by diversifying their offerings and
expanding their range of programs, courses and services- an inclusive or egalitarian pressure
2)segments of education are becoming more competitive- a contest or achievement pressure
3) these crosscutting pressures (inclusion versus contest) are altering forms of stratification in Canadian
Thinking Structurally: Established Stratification
-social selection- assigning badges of ability
-Stratification: structuring different programs or institutions as higher or lower than one another and
linking that hierarchy to better or worse opportunities in advanced levels of education or in job markets
-The traditional form of educational stratification in high schools has been known as streaming in
Canada and tracking in the US
-Streaming: splitting students into ability groups, typically consisting of an upper stream bound for post-
secondary schooling and lower tiers offering vocational training
Three levels of stratification in Canadian high school:
Level A: the academic and vocational split
Level B: the subject or field split
Level C: placement or program split
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