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Chapter 6

SOCB54H3 Chapter 6: Gender and paid employment chapter 6


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCB54H3
Professor
Julian Tanner
Chapter
6

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Gender and paid employment chapter 6
Certainly woman having strong games in the workplace in Canada for instance the
sheriff adult woman in the paid workforce has done from one third in 1970 nearly 2/3
 taditioal attitudes aout oe’s economic rules have shifted.
Rising education levels and job opportunities have made more women career minded
economic realities in changing family forms have also meant that for many Woman
thee’s o hoie ut to ok fo pa.
Get despite hages taditioal gede pattes i the okplae I’ still stikig et
otiue i the pesee of oe luatie ad pestigious jos ad oa’s tede
to fit employment Family duties.
Once observe the sex segregation of occupations but they explained this it is necessary
to look at how jobs are gendered- that is ho the take I’ soietal iages of
appropriate male or female behavior. We tend to prefer the term gender given that
male female differences in employment are a result of socially created gender roles and
ideologies
Gender and working historical context: although history has the most part been written
from the perspective of men even a quick class back to the past reveals that woman
have always performed a vital role in their economy. White male traders relied on
aboriginal women to act as interpreters prepare food clean cults for market and teach
some wilderness survival skills. When 1agrarian economy began to develop in upper
Canada in the 19th-century Valley was the basic production unit in which women played
a key role men worked in the field while woman looked after all domestic work
associated with childrearing tending to the livestock and garden making clothes and
preparing food. Similarly, in Canadian West in the early 1900s Woman contributed
significantly to agricultural development by working on the family farm and making the
farm Home a haven up safety and helpfulness.
Industrialization and woman work: men were drawn into the industrial wage labor
market women were increasingly confined to the domestic spirit of the household.
Cohe’s feiist Aalsis of eooi deelopet i the th century Ontario reveals
that prior to wide scale industrialization and integration of family and household existed
within the emerging market economy traditional theories of industrialization Cohen
poits out test igoe the otiutio of household to the eoo. Otaio’s eal
economy was primarily based on to staple export wheat and timber which was subject
to ustale iteatioal akets. Coseuetl e’ll iss household hae to fulfill to
functions generate family income by producing agricultural goods to selling local
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consumer market and performed a domestic chores necessary for the Family survival.
Cohe’s eseah udelies ipotae of eaiig ho the puli ad piate
spheres of market and household have been intertwined in diverse ways during all
phases of economic development with woman always performing pivotal role quite
different from those performed by men.
The absence of wage labor market and the necessity of contributing to the household
economy and that a few women were formally employed outside the home before the
rise of industrial capitalism even in the late 19 century only a fraction of women were
engaged in paid employment employer is some light industries such as textiles recruited
oe as heap I’ skilled o sei skilled laoes ill aodig to peailig
stereotypes would be less likely unionized and more tolerant of boring tasks
By focusing on only paid employment we risk ignoring the work activities of most
woman during this era. Unpaid domestic labor of women- raising the future generation
of workers and feeding clothing and caring for the present generation of workers- was
an essential function within capitalism also referred to as social reproduction out of
these competing pressures on woman liked and engendered the vision of labor that
persist today this now takes the form of double day or second shift where by many
women spend the day and paying jobs it still you most of the responsibilities of childcare
eldercare and domestic chores when they get home.
Early 20th Cetu attitudes aout oe’s eooi ole Eglish etee sigle ad
married woman expanding manufacturing and service industries had almost demand for
both blue and white collar workers. The employment of young Single woman prior to
marriage came to be collated and socially acceptable and domestic clerical sales and
some factory jos oe aied hoee oa e’e epeted to eteat ito the
atioial hoe. Of ouse I’ ish to eai i the lao foe ad othes ee
forced to state through economic necessity. In these cases married woman labored at
the margins of the economy in domestic and other menial jobs that usually have been
abandoned by single women.
Industrialization essentially did age and gender division in the economy examining the
weight pattern of working class women in Montréal Canada first light industrial city
Bradbury documented how agents next determine who was gone into wage labor
oa ade aout % of the it’s idustial okfoe duig the s i etai
industries such as domestic work and the sewing and dressmaking trades four out of
five women and most of them were single given the viscosity of wage labor for wise
because of strong sanctions against their employment settlement could make a great
contribution to the family economy by being household managers. In this role wives
steth the ages of ale fail ee ad sigle daughtes as fa as possile
occasionally supplementing this by taking in boarders or turning to neighbours or
charities for help.
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Family wage ideology: powerful social values justified this division of labor. Especially
lentil and perpetrating woman subordinate role as unpaid family workers was the
ideology of Family wage. As was working class men and began organizing unions to
achieve better wages and working conditions one of the labour movements demand
was that wages should be high enough for male breadwinners to support a wife and
children.
The lao oeet suess i i this hae dastiall eduig oe’s pesee ad
the cheap labor they provided in the workplace (policy typical unions until an a serious
male labor shortage). Middle class reformers also lobbied for restrictions on female
industrial employment due to its perceived harmful personal and social effects. In
espose eploees liited the’e hiig ail to sigle oe fo thei eifoig
this ideology. Despite its sexist tone the family wage ideology may have helped raise the
standard of living in working class families. The price of course was female dependence
o the estitio of oe’s lao aket oppotuities aeas hee the did ot
compete directly with men- hence the term male breadwinner.
Fail age ideolog tells ol pat of The sto of oe’s lies duig the
idustializatio. Pa’s “tud o to Otaio idustial to Pais ad Haoe
between 1880 1950s shows there was a very broad context gender what happens on
the surface for Paris and Hanover. typically, small thriving manufacturing communities.
This ief histoial steps has a ifiite ue of poiet thees although the’e
widespread participation paid labor force is a recent development women have always
ade a etal eooi otiutio. “eodl oe’s et ito paid eploet
occurred in ways that reproduce their subordinate position in society relative to that of
men. During the changing interconnections of households families in the wage labor
aket ae uial to udestadig oe’s ole i otiuig eolutio st century
capitalism.
Gender and labor force participation patterns: few changes in Canadian society since
world war ii have had as fa eahig oseuees as oe’s iflu ito paid ok.
Virtually all industrialized nations have experienced rising female labour force
participation rates since the end of world war II. This trend has been especially rapid in
Canada. Rising female employment is a trend in virtually all countries. Canada
experienced the largest change, followed closely by Australia and United States. The
tremendous expansion of white collar service sector jobs, coupled with rising education
and a declining birthrate drew millions of Canadian women into employment at an
aeleated ate. B  Caada’s feale laou foe patiipatio ates supassed
that of all countries. The latter is an interesting case, given that it experienced farless
change than nearly all other countries in the 1975-  peiod: oe’s eploet
outside the home has been actively encourage by state policies for decades.
Ifluees ad itesetioalit i oe’s ad e’s eploet: there was no single
economic factor for this remarkable increase in female labour force participation. The
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