Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCB05H3 (26)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Katherine Stuart

Chapter 1 - Human Inquiry and Science • Knowledge is based on agreement; ex. People in china speak Chinese • The second question makes it concrete(when we know what is real) Looking for reality • Something is considered real when there is logical and empirical support • Epistemology – science of knowing • Methodology – science of finding out Ordinary Human Inquiry • Humans use cause and effect as a way of indication outcomes (high education = high paying job) • These ideas can be probabilistic because the effect occur more than when causes are absent • We need to distinguish between predictions and understandings • If we understand the meaning behind something it makes our predictions stronger Tradition • “everybody knows” we agree on something because we learn it from others • It hinders to be a problem because if someone tries to seek a fresh understanding of something they may look like fools Authority • Acceptance depends on status of the discoverer ( believe a medical researcher over your uncle) • Can be a problem because things change over time and mistakes are possible • Both ways helps us gain an understanding and knowledge (starting point of inquiry) Errors in Inquiry and Some solutions • Inaccurate Observation – it’s a thing about our conscious and sometimes we can’t remember therefore we use proper measurement devices to overcome this (write things down/pictures) • Overgeneralization – come to a very fast conclusion (pressure) by observing few events and believing that they form a pattern • Replication : a research study is repeated to verify results from previous findings or to question them • Selective Observation – once we figure out a pattern exists we focus it on future events that fit the pattern and ignore those that don’t (it rained every time I was a child, however it was not true) • Illogical Reasoning – the outcome is certain but there is no logic behind it (didn’t rain for many days so it will rain on the day of our picnic/ I’m still in the game because I’m going to win) What’s really real? • What’s real is pretty obvious and this helps us get through our lives 3 views Premodern View – early ancestors believed what they wanted, however others opposed The Modern View – different people have different ideas but agree both ways (ex. Dandelion) The Postmodern View – All that is real are images we get through our point of view (ex. Book) The Foundations of Social Science • Theory – a systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a
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