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SOCB22H3 (28)
Chapter 2

SOCB22H3 Chapter 2: Social Organization of Masculinity Connell Rw
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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCB22H3
Professor
Lauren Spring
Semester
Winter

Description
1. Social Organization of Masculinity  Masculinity is not a coherent object about which a generalizing science can be produced yet we can have a coherent knowledge about the issue raised in attempts. If they brought in the angle of vision we can see masculinity not as an isolated object but as an aspect of a larger structure.  All societies have cultural accounts of gender but not all have concept of masculinity and its modern usage terms him that one behavior results on the type of person one is and on masculine person would behave differently being peaceable rather than violent conciliatory valid and dominating height be able to kick a football uninterested in sexual conquests and further.  This concept presupposes a belief individual differences and personal agency it is built on the conception of individuality that developed in early modern Europe the growth of colonial empires and capitalist economic relations the concept it’s also inherently wrong relational masculinity does not exist except in polarized character types at least in principle does not have a concept of masculinity in the sense of modern European and American culture.  Historical research suggest that this was too of European culture itself before the 18 century woman was suddenly regarded as different from men but different in the sense of being incomplete or inferior. Woman and men would not seen as bearers I’ll call truly different characters this conception accompanied the bourgeois ideology of separate spheres in the 19 century.  In both respects our concept of masculinity seems to be fairly recent historical product of a few hundred years old and speaking of masculinity at all then we are doing gender in culturally specific ways rather than attempting to define masculinity as an object a natural character type of behavior average and Norm we need to focus on the process and relationships through which men and women conduct gendered lives masculinity to the extent of the term can be briefly defined is simultaneously a place and gender relations practices to which men and women engaged the place in gender and the affect of these practices in bodily experiences personality and culture.  Gender is a way in which social practice is ordered and gender processes that every day conduct of life is organized in relation the reproductive arena defined by the bodily structure and process of human reproduction arena include sexual arousal and intercourse childbirth and infant care bodily sex differences and similarities.  Call this a reproductive arena not a biological base to emphasize the point that we are talking about historical process involving the body not a fixed set of biological determinants gender is a social practice that constantly refers to bodies and what bodies do not a social practice reduced to the body.  Reductionism presents the exact reverse of the real situation gender exists precisely to the extent that biology does not determine the social marketing of those points of condition with historical processes supersedes biological evolution as a form of change.  Gender is a scandal and outreach from the point of view of essentialism socio biologists are constantly trying to abolish it by proving the human social arrangements are reflexive evolutionary imperative social practice is creative and inventive but not inchoate a response to particular situations and is gendered within definite structures of social relations gender relations the relations among people and groups organized to the reproductive Arena foreman of the major structures of all documented societies.  practice that relates to the structure generated as people and groups grapple with their historical situation does not consist of isolated that actions are configured in large units and when we speak of masculinity and seminary we are naming configurations of gender practice configuration is perhaps to static attend the party thing is the process of configuring practice taking a dynamic view of the organization of practice we arrive at an understanding of masculinity and femininity as a gender project these are processes of configuring practice to time which transform their starting point In gender structures  we find gender configuring of practice however we slice the social world whatever unit of analysis we choose most familiar is the individual life chorus the basis of the common-sense notion of masculinity and femininity the configuration of practice here is what psychologist have traditionally called personality or character.  Such a focus is liable to exaggerate the coherence of practice that can be achieved at any one site therefore not surprising that psychoanalysis originally stressing contradiction just to avoid the concept of identity poststructuralist critics of psychology is Wendy Hollway have emphasized that gender identities are fractured and shifting because multiple discourses intersect in any individual life this argument highlighted another site that of discourse ideology a culture hear gender is organized in a symbolic practice that may continue much longer than the individual life.  A third sight of gender configuration are institutions such as the state the workplace and the school many find it difficult to accept that institutions substantively it’s not just metamorphic Lee gender the state for instance is a masculine institution to say this is not imply at the personality of top male office holders see-through and stained the institution State organizational practices are structured in relation to the reproductive arena the overwhelming majority of pop officeholders I men because there is a gendered configuring of recruitment and promotion agenda configuring of the internal division of labor and system of control agenda configuring a policy making practical routines in away of mobilizing pleasure and consent.  The gender structuring of practice need have nothing biologically to do with reproduction link with the reproductive arena is social this becomes clear when it is challenged an example is over homosexuals in the military the rules excluding soldiers and sailors because of the gender of the sexual object choice done admitted reason for this was a cultural importance of particular definition of masculinity in maintaining the fragile cohesion of modern Armed Forces has been clear since the work of Juliet Mitchell and Gail Rubin in the 1970s the gender is an internally complex structure where a number of different logistics superimposed this is a fact of great importance for the analysis of masculinity’s anyone masculinity as a configuration of practice is simultaneously positioned in a number of structures of relationships which maybe following different historical trajectories accordingly masculinity like femininity is always liable to internal contradiction and historical disruption.  We need at least a threefold model of the structure of gender distinguishing relations of a) power b) production and c) cathexis ( emotional attachment) this is a provisional model but it gives some purchase on the issue about masculinity.  Power relationsthe main axis of power in the contemporary European-American gender order is the overall subordination of women and dominance of men the structure of women’s liberation named patriarchy this general structure exists despite many local reversals it persist despite resistance of many kinds now articulated in feminism these reversals in resistance mean continuing difficulties for patriarchal power they define the problem of legitimacy which has great importance for the politics of masculinity.  Production relations gender divisions of labor are familiar in the form of the allocation of tasks sometimes reaching extraordinarily find detail equal attention should be paid to the economic consequences of gender division of labor two men from an equal share of the product of social labor this is most often discussed in terms of unequal wage rate but the gender character of capital should be also noted a capitalist economy working to a gender division of labor is necessarily a gendered accumulation process so it is not a statistical accident but part of social construction of masculinity that men and not women controlled the major corporations and the great private fortunes implausible as it sounds the accumulation of wealth has become firmly linked to the reproductive arena for the social relation of gender.  Cathexis sexual desires often seen as natural that it is commonly excluded from social theory get what we consider desire in Freudian terms as emotional energy being attached to an object it’s gendered characters clear this is true both for heterosexual and homosexual desires bi sexual desire is ill-defined and unstable to practice that shapes and realize desire are that’s an aspect of the ships involved whether they are consensual or courses whether pleasure is equally given and received an feminist analysis of sexuality fees have become sharp questions about the connection of heterosexuality with men’s position of social dominance.  Because gender is a way of structuring social practices and general auto special type of practice that gender intersects better interacts with the racing class we might add that it constantly interacts with nationality what position in the world order.  Similarly it is possible to understand the shaping of working class masculinity’s without giving full weight to the class as well as the gender politics this is vividly shown an historical work Limited livelihood on industrial England in the 19 century an ideal of working class manliness and self-respect was constructed in response class deprivation and paternalistic strategies of management at the same time and through the same gestures as it was defined against working-class women. Strategy a family wage which long depressed woman’s wait in 20 Century economies grew out of this interplay to understand gender then we must constantly go beyond gender the same applies and rivers we cannot understand class base or global inequality without constantly moving towards gender gender relations are a major component of social structure as a whole and gender politics are among the main determinants of collective fate.  what's going recognition of the interplay between gender race and class and comment to recognize multiple masculinity's black as well as white working class as well as middle-class this is welcome but it is risk another kind of oversimplification is easy in this framework to think that they are Black masculinity or a working-class masculinity.  To recognize more than one kind of masculinity is only a first step we have to examine the relation between them further we have to unpack the mileux of class and race and scrutinize gender relations operating within them.  A focus on gender relations among men is necessary to keep the analysis dynamic to prevent acknowledgment of multiple masculinity’s collapsing into a character typology as happen with the all authoritarian personality research. Hegemonic masculinity is not a fixed character type always and everywhere the same it is rather than masculinity that occupies the hegemonic position in a given pattern of gender relations the Positive always contestable a focus on relations also offered again in realism recognizing multi
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