Separate and Unequal.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Separate and Unequal The changing gender composition of the labour force.  In the 20 century, the % of both women and men entering the labour foce increased, but womens rate of increase far outpaced mens.  In recent years, women with children at home have been one of the fastest growing groups in the labour force.  This dramatic increase in labour force participation has been true for allraces and ethinicities and in both Canada and the USA. The persistence of gender ideologies  Many north Amriecans still believe in the ‘traditional’ male breadwinner/female housewife model even if our own lives no longer reflect it.  Workplace is seen as a masculine arena, where men could test and prove their manhood against other men. Working enabled men to confirm their manhood as breadwinner and family providers  Workplace becomes a testing ground of masculinity.  If he makes less than his wife does, both partners may engage in deviance neutralization, understanding her income or exaggerating his contribution to preserve the idea of malebreadwinner.  Tranditional gender stereotypes would have us believe that women would be content to marry less attractive but financially stable men. American women now say that earning potential is not at all important in their mate choise.  On the one hand, women continue to face gender discrimination: they are paid less, promoted less, and assigned to specific jobs despite their qualifications and motivations, and they are sometimes made to feel unwelcome, like intruders in an all male preserve. On the other hand, men say they are bewildered and angered by the changes in workplace policy that make them feel like they are walking on eggshells, fearful of making any kind of remark to a women lest they be hauled into hauled for sexual harassment. The persistence of gender discrimination in the workplace  For many years,, the chief obstacle facing women who sought to enter the labour force was sex discrimination. E.g. women don’t really want to work, they don’t need the money, they have diff aptitudes and interests.  The basis for the discrimantion may not rely on any stereotypic ideas about the differences between women and men, and the discrimantion must be based on a bona fide occupational requirement (BFOR). For instance, the job could be denied to a nine year old boy because age is BFOR for the performance of the job.  Also, for instance some workplaces such as a waitress required female sexuality as a bona fide occupation. Sex segregation  Refers to womens and mens concentration in diff occupations, industries, jobs, and levels in workplace hierarchies.  Vertical segregation: refers to segregation associated with diff of education, experience, and skill within the same field.  Horizontal segregation: refers to segregation within occupations in diff fields that are roughly similar in terms of educational and skill requirements, for ex: truck driving and secretarial work, or engineering and teaching.  Though women have been broadening their areas of employment, womens paid work remains less diverse than that of men. And yet women have colonized mens arenas far more then the reverse; in part this is cuz once again, his is recognized as better than hers. We give more value (and pay) to occupations we associate with stereptypically ‘masculine’ characterics such as strength, competition, and assertiveness than to occupations assocated with female traits such as co-operation and nurturing.  Socialization cannot explain why a sex segregated labour market emerged, why each sex is allocated to
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