Textbook Notes (368,318)
Canada (161,809)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCB26H3 (17)
Chapter 3


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Julian Tanner

Chapter3 Introduction: Changing contexts for schooling -Bell’s post industrial: communication technology has rapidly transformed our way of life, from internet to cellphones through to smart cars and bioinformatics -More fundamentally, modern innovations depend increasingly on the pure research of university scholars. Politicians are among the strongest proponents of building bridges between education, knowledge and the economy -ever-higher levels of schooling have led to increasingly high earnings for more educated individuals -many earliest university charters were awarded to institutions with strong religious ties(Dalhousie, Mcmaster, Queens) -The decline of religion has helped alter the cultural underpinnings of modern life -Increasingly, school material must compete with popular entertainment, advertising, and clothing, which have been criticized as “industries of deversion” and as “weapons of mass distraction” Socialization Structural Functionalism -claimed a direct lineage from the thought of emile Durkheim -fuctionlism including human capital theory, the new institutionalism, and reflexive modernity -schools played the key role of teaching modern values. They reasoned that as societies industrialize and become more urbanized, their cultures become less parochial and more cosmopolitan, and their politic less authoritarian and more democratic -school would function as transmitters of modern values like universalism, democracy and meritocracy -Instead of teaching repeatedly lecture on it, school operated in a universalistic and meritocratic fashion, students learned by doing so -By treating all students equally b4 common rules, schools embodied the values of universalism, by rewarding only those students that truly deserved top grades, schools taught the value of meritocracy Neo-Marxism:The capitalist Hidden curriculum -main idea was that schools socialize students into a capitalist hidden curriculum -they emphasized that different levels of education feed workers into different levels within the occupational structure -These neo-marxists understand the evolving history of public education as a reflection of the changing needs of the capitalist class -Bowles and Gintis saw schools as aiding the survival of capitalism by inculcating “ruling class ideology”. -Ideology refers to systems of ideas or cognitive frameworks that guide how we think and act, also includes class bias or class-self-interest -schools create and recreate forms of consciousness that enable social control to be maintained w/o the necessity of dominant groups having to revert to overt mechanisms of domination -schools offer a “hidden curriculum” to teach student ideology: they organize students learning in a competitive manner, forcing students to vie for grades and rewards -capitalist schools teach only some forms of knowledge such as chemistry and mathematics The focus on Ascription: Shaping Identities of Gender and Race -(B4 WWII)most young women were trained either for housewifery or a narrow range of “nurturing” occupations like nursing and elementary school teaching, this schooling was based on overt assumptions abt gender Renewed Individualism? Reflexive Modernization -students and their families approach schooling through a particular calculus -education remains a valuable currency, it makes sense for families to invest in schooling for their children -these insurance-seekers encounter schooling in less predictable ways within an array of personal choices.etc more full time students have part time jobs -a new level of individualism presents a fundamental challenge to the idea of schools promoting common values Selection: Inequality and Opportunity The functional theory of stratification:selecting for merit -stratification is a universal necessity, fundamental for the survival of society -effectively, society requires a motivational system to induce ppl to occupy functionally important positions -schooling provides an efficient and rational method to sort and select ppl for key jobs -school have an increasingly integral role in contributing to a knowledge economy -lower-class groups were yet to fully embrace modern values, and still do not truly value education, aspire for upward mobility and embrace the spirit of competition. In addition, these families were seen to disadvantage their children by failing to nurture the kinds of basic cognitive skills that support school success (reading to their children) problems: 1
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