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Chapter 1-2

PSYB45 Chapter 1-2 (Behaviour Modification)

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Sociology
Course
SOCB43H3
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All Professors
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PSYB45 TEXTBOOK NOTES WEEK 1 READINGS: CHAPTERS 1-2 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION WHAT IS BEHAVIOUR?  Commonly used synonyms = activity, action, performance, responding, response, and reaction  Essentially, behaviour is anything that a person says or does  Technically, behaviour is any muscular, glandular or electrical activity of an organism  Overt (visible) behaviours can be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one performing the behaviour o i.e., walking, talking out loud, throwing a baseball, yelling at someone  Covert (private, internal) behaviours cannot be readily observed by others o Activities that occur “within one’s skin” and therefore require special instruments or procedures for others to observe  Covert and overt behaviours can be influenced by the techniques of behaviour modification  Imagining and private self talk are sometimes referred to as cognitive behaviours o Techniques for dealing with cognitive behaviours are called cognitive behaviour therapy  Dimensions of behaviour are characteristics of behaviour that can be measured o Duration is the length of time that it lasts o Frequency is the number of instances that occur in a given time period o Intensity/Force is the physical effort or energy involved in emitting the behaviour SUMMARY LABELS FOR BEHAVIOUR  Traditional helping specialists often use general summary terms such as intelligence, attitudes, and creativity o Avoid using “intelligence” as a noun  Other psychological terms such as developmental disabilities, autism, and so on, are labels for certain ways of behaving o Make this decision (developmental disability) primarily because they might observe that the person, at a certain age, may not do certain things others in that age group can do (i.e., can’t tie shoe laces, is not toilet trained, etc) o Diagnose a child as showing autistic disorder by observing:  Frequently mimes particular questions rather than answering with an appropriate statement (impaired communication)  Impaired social behaviour  Engages in various self-stimulatory behaviours  Performs much below average on a variety of self-care tasks  Other summary labels commonly used to refer to psychological problems include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, road rage, interpersonal difficulties, and sexual dysfunction  Summary labels may be useful for quickly providing general information about how an individual might perform o A 10-year old that has been labeled as having a severe developmental disability, for example, would not be able to read event at the first-grade level PSYB45 TEXTBOOK NOTES WEEK 1 READINGS: CHAPTERS 1-2  Labels may imply that a particular treatment program will be helpful o Someone with road rage might be encouraged to take an anger-management program  The use of summary labels also has disadvantages: o May lead to pseudo-explanations of behaviour (pseudo means false)  A child who inverts words while reading might be labeled as dyslexic. If we as why the child inverts words, and we are give the answer “because he is dyslexic,” then the summary label for the behaviour has been used as a pseudo-explanation for the behaviour  Also called circular reasoning o Labels can negatively affect the way an individual might be treated  Teachers may be less likely to encourage children to persist in problem solving if they have been given the label mentally retarded o May direct our focus to an individual’s problem behaviours rather than their strengths  Suppose a teenager consistently fails to make his bed but reliably mows the lawn and places the garbage cans on the street on pickup days. If the parents describe their son as lazy, that label may cause them to focus more on the problem behaviour than to praise the positive behaviours  In some societies, racial minorities have been given then negative label lazy even when they were the ones doing most of the hard physical work in those societies  Strongly stress the importance of defining all types of problems in terms of behavioural deficits (too little behaviour of a particular type) or behavioural excesses (too much behaviour of a particular type). o Helps avoid the problem of using general summary labels o Regardless of the labels attached to an individual, it is behaviour that causes concern – and behaviour that must be treated to alleviate the problem o Specific procedures are not available that can be used to improve behaviour in schools, workplaces, and in home settings o These techniques are referred to collectively as behaviour modification WHAT IS BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION?  The most important characteristic of behaviour modification is its strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behaviour that can be measured in some way and using changes in the behavioural measure of the problem as the best indicator of the extent to which the problem is being helped  Behaviour modification treatment procedures and teachings are ways of altering an individual’s current environment to help that individual function more fully  Stimuli are the people, objects, and events currently present in one’s immediate surroundings that impinge on one’s sense receptors and that can affect behaviour o EXAMPLE: the teacher, chalkboard, other students, and the furniture in a classroom are all potential stimuli in a student’s environment in a classroom setting o An individual’s own behaviour can also be a part of the environment influencing that individual’s subsequent behaviour PSYB45 TEXTBOOK NOTES WEEK 1 READINGS: CHAPTERS 1-2 o Things that a therapist might say to a client are also a part of that client’s environment  Behaviour modification is more than talk therapy or verbal psychotherapy o Behavior modifier is frequently actively involved in restructuring a client’s daily environment to strengthen appropriate behaviour rather than spending a great deal of time discussing the client’s past experiences  Knowledge of current environment variables that control client’s behaviour is necessary for designing an effective behavioural treatment o Behavior modifier frequently gives homework assignments to clients in which they change their own everyday environments for therapeutic purposes  Behaviour modification methods and rationales can be described precisely o Makes it possible to read descriptions of procedures used by colleagues, replicate them, and get essentially the same results o Makes it easier to teach behaviour modification procedures  The techniques of behaviour modification are often applied by individuals in everyday life o The precise description of behaviour modification techniques makes it possible for individuals such as parents, teachers, coaches, and others to apply behaviour modification to help individuals in everyday situations  To a large extent, the techniques stem from basic and applied research in the science of learning in general and the principles of operant and Pavlovian conditioning in particular  Behaviour modification emphasizes scientific demonstration that a particular intervention was responsible for a particular behaviour change, and it places high value on accountability for everyone involved in behaviour modification programs  Behaviour modification involves the systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals’ covert and overt behaviours in order to enhance their daily functioning WHAT IS BEHAVIOURAL ASSESSMENT?  Target behaviours are behaviors to be improved in a behaviour modification program o EXAMPLE: if a university student sets a goal of studying two hours out of class for each spent in class, studying is the target behaviour  Behavioural assessment involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to (1) identify and describe target behaviours; (2) identify possible causes of the behaviour; (3) guide the selection of an appropriate behavioural treatment; and (4) evaluate treatment outcome  Functional analysis involves isolating through experimentation the causes of problem behaviour and removing or reversing them BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION AND APPLIED BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS  Behaviour analysis refers to the scientific study of laws that govern the behaviour of human beings and other animals  Applied behaviour analysis is a term closely related to behaviour modification  Baer, Wolf, and Risely identified the dimensions of applied behaviour analysis as including: PSYB45 TEXTBOOK NOTES WEEK 1 READINGS: CHAPTERS 1-2 o (a) a focus on measureable behaviour that is socially significant (e.g., littering, parenting skills, language learning with persons with developmental disabilities); o (b) a strong emphasis on the learning principles referred to as operant conditioning; o (c) an attempt to clearly demonstrate that the applied treatment was responsible for the improvement in the behaviour that was measured; and o (d) a demonstration of generalizable and long-lasting improvements in behaviour  The techniques of behaviour modification use the principles of both operant and Pavlovian conditioning while applied behaviour analysis relies largely on operant conditioning  The term behaviour modification encompasses the terms behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy. Thus, although the terms applied behaviour analysis and behaviour modification are often used interchangeably, the latter term acquired a broader meaning BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION, BEHAVIOUR THERAPY, AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY  The term behaviour therapy emerged in the late 1950s to refer to treatment procedures based on Pavlovian conditioning to treat anxiety disorders o The term has come to refer to behaviour modification carried out on dysfunctional behaviour (e.g., anxiety disorders, depression, marital discord) in clinical settings o Cognitive therapists in the 1970s began to focus on treating dysfunctional behaviour by changing unproductive, debilitating thought patterns that were considered to be responsible for the dysfunctional behaviour  This approach is referred to as cognitive behaviour therapy (cognitive behaviour modification)  Behaviour modification includes all explicit applications of behaviour principles to improve an individual’s covert and overt behaviours SOME MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION  Myth 1: use of rewards by behaviour modifiers to change behaviour is bribery  Myth 2: behaviour modification involves the use of drugs, psychosurgery, and electroconvulsive therapy  Myth 3: behaviour modification changes only symptoms but doesn’t get at the underlying problems  Myth 4: behaviour modification can be applied to deal with simple problems, such as toilet training children, but it is not applicable for changing complex problems such as low self-esteem or depression  Myth 5: behaviour modifiers are cold and unfeeling and don’t develop empathy with their clients  Myth 6: behaviour modifiers deal only with observable behaviour; they don’t deal with thoughts and feelings of clients  Myth 7: behaviour modification is outdated PSYB45 TEXTBOOK NOTES WEEK 1 READINGS: CHAPTERS 1-2 CHAPTER 2: AREAS OF APPLICATION – AN OVERVIEW  Modified behaviours range from simple motor skills to complex problem solving  Applications of behaviour modification are occurring with ever-increasing frequency in areas such as education, social work, nursing, clinical psychology, psychiatry, community psychology, medicine, rehabilitation, business, industry, and sports PARENTING AND CHILD MANAGEMENT  Behavioural techniques have been applied to help parents teach their children to walk, develop children’s initial language skills, toilet train their children, and influence their children to do household chores  Parents have also been taught behavioural strategies for decreasing problem behaviours, such as nail biting, temper tantrums, aggressive behaviours, ignoring rules, failure to comply with parents’ requests, and frequent arguing  Triple P Positive Parenting is an effective, multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioural, emotional, and developmental problems in children EDUCATION: FROM PRESCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY  Many applications in elementary school have been designed to change student behaviours that were disruptive or incompatible with academic learning o Out-of-seat behaviour, tantrums, aggressive behaviours, and excessive socializing have all been successfully dealt with in classroom settings o Other applications have involved modifying academic behaviour directly, including oral reading, reading comprehension, composition, spelling, handwriting, and mastering mathematics and science concepts  The progress that has been made in the use of behaviour modification in physical education include: o Development of reliable observations for monitoring the behaviour of physical education teachers and students to provide useable information on “what’s happening in the gym” o Increased acceptance by teachers and administrators of behavioural teaching skills as important components of teacher preparation programs o Increased acceptance of behavioural strategies to help physical educators manage a variety of behavioural difficulties of students  The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) was developed by Fred S. Keller and colleagues in the 1960s as a behaviour modification approach to university teaching. PSI (a.k.a. Keller plan): o Identifies that target behaviours or learning requirements for a course in the form of study questions PSYB45 TEXTBOOK NOTES
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