# Chapter 2 Part I

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19 Jun 2011
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Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
The whole idea is to transform raw data into a meaningful and organized set of
measures that can be used to test hypothesis
The first step is to construct a frequency distribution in the form of a table
Ex: Question- Response of young boys to frustration
Table 2.1 Responses of Young Boys to Removal of Toy
Response of a Child Frequency f
Cry25
Express Anger15
Withdraw5
Play with Another Toy5
(Total) N=50
Every table must have title and label by numbers as well
Frequency distribution of nominal data consist of two columns consisting of
oCharacteristics presented (response of child)
oCategories of analysis(cry, anger, withdraw)
oFrequency (# of responses per category)
oTotal number of responses right at the end (N = 50)
Looking at this table, it is evident that more young boys respond by crying or with
anger than withdrawal or playing with another toy
Comparing Distributions
Making comparisons between frequency distributions is often used to clarify results
Ex: Table 2.2 Response to Removal of Toy by Gender of Child
Gender of Child
Response of a Child Male Female
Cry25 28
Express Anger15 3
Withdraw5 4
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Play with Another Toy5 15
N=50 50
As shown in table 2.2, 15 out 50 girls but only 5 out of 50 boys responded by playing
with another toy in the room
Proportions and Percentages
When a researcher studies distributions of equal size, the frequency data can be
used to make comparisons between the groups
oEx: 50 girls and 50 boys
The most useful method of standardizing for size and comparison distributions are
the proportion and percentage
oProportion: compares number of cases in a given category with the total size
of the distribution
P=
P= 
oPercentage: multiply any given proportion by 100
% = (100)
% = (100) 
% = 30
Thus, 30 % of girls find alternative toys to play with
To illustrate the utility of percentage s in making comparisons with large and
unequal-sized distributions : Table 2.3
oCollege A has 1.352 engineering majors
oCollege B has 183 engineering majors
Engineering Majors
College ACollege B
Genderf%f%
Male 1,082 80 146 80
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