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SOCC04H3 (5)
Chapter 1

Staggenborg Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Staggenborg Chapter 1 Repertoire of collective action  Limited forms of protest forms familiar during a given time  Using the repertoire of tactics, activists engage in: o Claim-making performances  Public gatherings who use familiar tactics in making claims on the interests of targets  Charivari  Traditional form of collective action directed toward people who had disobeyed community norms (e.g. Married man getting a single woman pregnant). The guilty party would be subject to a noisy demonstration dedicated to humiliate him or he before everyone else in the community. Short in duration and local in scope.  A shift in repertoires occurs (more large-scale) because of the spread of capitalism and the expansion of nation-states o With the spread of wage labour, workers gained independence from landowners. Social movements  A set of beliefs which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society (McCarthy & Zald) OR collective challenges based on common purpose or solidarity in interaction with elites, opponents or authorities (Tarrow)  Social movements are sustained in that they consist of multiple campaigns or multiple episodes of collective action within a single campaign  Countermovement  A set of opinions and beliefs in a population opposed to a social movement  It is a form of contentious politics  sporadic public interactions with claim- makers and their targets (e.g. government authorities) based on the interest of social movement actors. o Includes contained contention and transgressed contention o Can also include: collective political struggles, revolutions, nationalism, and social movements. o Campaigns  Public interactions among movement actors, their targets, the public and other relevant actors o Movements may be professionalized meaning that they have leaders who are paid to work full time for movement organizations that often attract conscience constituents than beneficiaries, and that rely on financial contributions rather than activism from large number of participants. o Social movement organization (SMO)  A complex organization which defines its goals with the preferences of a social movement and attempts to implement these goals  Bureaucratization or Formalization  Characteristic of movement organizations with established procedures for decision-making, a developed division of labour, explicit criteria for membership, and rules governing subunits such as standing committees or chapters.  Centralization  Characteristic of movement organizations in which there is a single centre of decision-making power  Abeyance  A period in which a movement is not highly visible or very active but is maintained by an organization or other processes  Major social movements typically include multiple organizations (e.g. Environmental movement has Greenpeace and WWF)  These organizations have different ideologies and strategic approaches. They may compete with one another for members and funding  A collection of these organizations within a movement is a social movement industry and all of these industries is called the social movement sector o Social movement community  Idea that movements consist of networks and individuals, cultural groups, alternative institutions, political movement organizations, and institutional supporters  Action shaped by movement ideology can be found in a variety of institutions and structures of everyday life (Mayer Zald, 2000)  Movements consist of informal networks as well as formal organizations, and they produce culture and collective identity as well as political campaigns Staggenborg Chapter 2 Several major theoretical approaches have influenced the thinking of social movement scholars. These theories attempt to make general statements about movements across time and place.  Collective Behaviour Theory  Approach that focuses on the grievances that are seen as leading to collective behaviours outside of institutions or politics o Symbolic interactionism  Theory that focuses on the ways in which actors construct meanings through social interaction (Chicago school)  Where collective behaviour develops where systems of meaning have broken down, forcing people to construct new meanings to guide their behaviour.  Focuses on the emergence of social movements and the creation of new forms of activity and organization. o Smelser’s Theory  Structural conduciveness, structural strain, growth and spread of a generalized belief, precipitating factors (giving the generalized belief “proof”), mobilization for action, social control (to prevent the collective behaviour) o Mass society theory  Theory that collective behaviour is a response to the social isolation that occurs in societies lacking in the secondary groups needed to bind people together and keep them attached to mainstream society. o Relative deprivation theory  Theory that collective behaviour is most likely when conditions start to improve and expectations rise, but the rate of improvement does not match expectations and people feel deprived relative to others.  Criticism: Better predictor of rebellions than collective action and they are more likely to be generated through participation than being a precondition  Resource Mobilization Theory  Approach focusing on resources, organization, and opportunities needed for social movement mobilization and collective action o Resources  Tangible and intangible assets available to social movement organizations and other actors  These resources don’t neces
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