week 7 reading.docx

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Katherine( Katy) De Celles

Paradigm, Theory and Research - Ch.2 - Theories - help us explain future events, help make sense of patterns, and lastly shape and direct research efforts, pointing towards likely discoveries through empirical observations Social Science Paradigms - Paradigms – ways to organize and reference our observations and reasoning (different views) - We can see other peoples paradigms, and also step out of our own to explore and explain things - I.e. earth revolves around the sun; changed views now say sun revolves around the earth - Therefore, no paradigm can be true or false Macrotheory and Microtheory - Macrotheory – looks at large whole units of society or even whole societies - Microtheory – deals with issues of social life at the level of individuals and small groups Early Positivism - Comte acknowledged the fact that society could be studied scientifically, explanations of society revolved around religion and god but he changed that belief - This was known as positivism Conflict Paradigm - Karl Marx saw society as a process of conflict, people avoid being dominated by others and dominating others instead (conflict between economic classes) “macro issues” - Michel Chossdovsky saw how third world nations were being exploited through organization such as the IMF and World Bank - Hoffman looked at conflict between siblings (“jealousy and rivalry for parents”) Symbolic Interactionism - Georg Simmel looked at “micro issues” - Influenced Cooley who looked at primary group (affiliations/sense of belonging) in families, cliques and friends , also looking glass-self (how you feel someone thinks of you is how you react) similar to Mead’s “take the role of the other” Ethnomethodology - Harold Garfinkel said people are continually creating social structure through interactions - Manzo shed light on the rules of behaviour people follow when interacting in shopping malls Structural Functionalism - Social system is made up of parts that contributes in functioning as a whole Feminist Paradigm - Looks at how gender differences relate to rest of social organization, shed light on oppression of women - Subjective knowledge – acquired through experiences - Constructed knowledge – women experience themselves as creators of knowledge - There are a number of paradigms for feminism Rational Objectivity Reconsidered - Rational behaviour choosing the best outcome for you -
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