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STAB22H3 (122)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mahinda Samarakoon

Stats: Data and Models – Canadian Edition Chapter 3 – Displaying and Describing Categorical Data Three Rules of Data Analysis - 1. Make a picture – a display of the data can reveal patterns and relationships hiding in the data - 2. Make a picture – a display will show possibly wrong data values or unexpected patterns - 3. Make a picture – a display is the best way to tell others about your data Frequency Tables: Making Piles - We pile things together that seem to go together, so we can see how the cases distribute across different categories - For categorical data: count the number of cases in each category and pile them up - A frequency table records the totals and the category name - A relative frequency table displays proportions or percentages, rather than the counts of the values in each category - Both tables describe the distribution of a categorical variable because they name the possible categories and how frequently each occurs The Area Principle - The best data displays consider the area principle - The area principle says that the area occupied by a part of the graph should correspond to the magnitude of the value it represents Bar Charts - Bar charts make comparisons between categories easy and natural; displays the distribution of a categorical variable, showing the counts for each category next to each other for easy comparison - Should have small spaces between bars to show that the bars are freestanding and can be arranged in any order - In a relative frequency bar chart, replace
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