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STAB22H3 (122)
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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 3 Anecdotal evidence: individual cases that are striking in some way and occur rarely that needs not to be represented for any large group of cases. Ex: friends are big fans the show barney, this cant be generalized to a larger population. This is because any group of friends cannot be used as a representative for all college students Available data: data produced in the past for some other purpose but may help answer a present question Ex: library and internet - Statistical designs for producing data rely on either sampling or experiments - The idea of sampling is to study a part (sample) in order to gain information about the whole (population) - Data are often produced by sampling a population of people or things. - Census attempt to contact every individual in the entire population - Carefully conducted sample is better than a census Observational vs experiement Observational study: individuals are observed and variables of interest are measured but do not attempt to influence the responses Experimental study: give out treatments to individuals and observe responses - The best way to see the affects of a change is to do an intervention where we actually impose the change - Intervention: where we impose the change - Experiments are the only source when understanding cause and affect - Confounding variable: observational study that examine the affect of a single variable of an outcome can be misleading when the affects the explanatory variable are confounded with those are other variables Ex: observational study: child who attend daycare are rated by their parents as disobedience, however this is not a cause-effect relationship bc there can be lurking variables influenced by their parents Statistical techniques: - Experiments require randomization - Statistical inference: answers specific questions with a known degree of confidence - Ethics - is the questions asked in order to make an experiment 3.1 Design of Experiments - Experimental units: individuals on which the experiment is done on. - When units are humans = subjects - treatment: specific experimental condition applied to the units Purpose of experiment is to reveal the response of one variable to changes in other variables. In experiments: www.notesolution.com
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